the republican victory the republican victory section 1 – 298-301 thomas jefferson was inaugurated...
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- The Republican Victory The Republican Victory Section 1 298-301 Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as the third President of the United States in 1801. The Republicans had also won control of both houses of Congress. The Federalists were no longer in control, but With the changing of the parties, Americans saw that the country could change its political leadership peacefully. Jefferson would have Congressional support for many of his plans.
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- Jefferson in Office First, Jefferson created his cabinet: James Madison = Secretary of State Albert Gallatin = Secretary of the Treasury Jefferson and Gallatin reduced the size of the army and the navy. They hoped that the money saved could be put towards paying down the national debt. Gallatin was ordered by Jefferson to end domestic taxes like the Whiskey Tax. Also, close the agencies that collected the domestic taxes that were being ended.
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- Marbury v. Madison Just before Jefferson took office, John Adams and the Federalist controlled Congress appointed many Federalists to become federal judges. When Jefferson entered office, some Federalists had not yet received their official paperwork stating that they were judges. Jefferson ordered Madison to not give out the paperwork. William Marbury (Federalist) did not receive his papers, and he asked the Supreme Court to intervene. Marbury wanted the Supreme Court to order the Executive Branch to hand over the papers.
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- Marbury v. Madison The Supreme Court heard the case and decided: That Marbury had been treated unfairly. However; the S.C. Justices felt that Congress and the Constitution had not given the S.C. the power to order the Executive Branch to hand over the papers. The Judiciary Act of 1789 said that the S.C. did have the power. The S.C. felt that the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional.
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- Marbury v. Madison The S.C.s decision in this case established the power of Judicial Review = The S.C. is allowed to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional and the law is no longer in force. Judicial Review greatly increased the S.C.s legal authority and made it a stronger branch of the federal government.
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- French Louisiana French Louisiana Section 2 302-307 In 1800, France was led by French General Napoleon Bonaparte. He wanted to rebuild Frances empire in North America, but first he had to gain control of the island of Hispaniola (Present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Hispaniola would be a supply base for the French military.
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- French Louisiana Enslaved Africans led an uprising and took over Hispaniola from the French in 1790. They were led by escaped slave, Toussaint-Louverture In 1802, Napoleons troops were defeated on Hispaniola by Louvertures army. Jefferson worried that if the French did eventually gain control of Hispaniola, they may also be able to block U.S. westward expansion.
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- The Louisiana Purchase Jefferson knew that New Orleans was the hub for U.S. expansion because it controlled all major shipping on the Mississippi River. He asked the U.S. ambassador to France to contact the French government about purchasing New Orleans and West Florida. Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana. France was about to go to war with Great Britain and Napoleon needed money for his European armies.
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- The Louisiana Purchase The French offered a price of $15 million for the Louisiana Territory and Jefferson accepted. Jefferson felt that the Constitution did not give him the right to make the purchase, but he felt he was acting in the best interest of the U.S. The region stretched west from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. 830,000 square miles and covers 14 current U.S. states.
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- Mission of Discovery Jefferson wanted information about the land the U.S. had just purchased. He specifically wanted to know about: The native peoples, soil, animals, plants, and minerals. He also wanted to know if there was an all-water river route to the Pacific Ocean. Jefferson chose former army captain Meriwether Lewis to lead an expedition in the LA Territory. Lewis chose army lieutenant William Clark to be co- leader.
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- The Lewis and Clark Expedition In May 1804, Lewis, Clark, and a small group of carefully selected and skilled frontiersman set out from St. Louis, Missouri. This group of explorers is known as The Corps of Discovery. They travelled north up the Missouri River on a custom-built boat called a keelboat.
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- The Lewis and Clark Expedition Early in the trip, the group met many American Indian tribes, among which was a Shoshone woman and her French husband. Sacagawea and her husband, helped guide The Corps of Discovery. She also acted as an interpreter and peacemaker.
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- The Lewis and Clark Expedition The expedition travelled up the Missouri River, hiked up and over the Rocky Mountains and floated down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. They arrived at the Pacific Ocean in November 1805, and built a small camp which they named Fort Clatsop after the neighboring Clatsop Indians.
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- The Lewis and Clark Expedition In March 1806, the Corps of Discovery headed home. They arrived in St. Louis in September 1806. The Corps of Discovery travelled just over 8,000 miles in 2 years. Only one member of the group died, and he died of a heart attack. Clark was a cartographer(map maker) who mapped the trip and measured the distance travelled. Todays satellite navigation shows that Clarks measurement on the distance travelled was off by only 40 miles.
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- The Lewis and Clark Expedition The Route of the Corps of Discovery
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- Pikes Exploration In 1806, young army officer Zebulon Pike was sent on a mission to: Find the headwaters of the Red River. The Red River runs through Louisiana and part of Texas and was considered part of the Louisiana Territory. Spy on Spanish outposts in the Southwest.
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- Pikes Exploration Pike led his expedition to the Rocky Mountains in present-day Colorado. While there he tried unsuccessfully to climb the mountain that today is known as Pikes Peak, 14,000+ feet high. Then he headed south into present-day New Mexico where the Spanish arrested him and accused him of being a spy. He denied the accusation. Eventually he was released and returned to the U.S. to report his findings.
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- Pikes Exploration The Pikes Peak Cog Railway The Pikes Peak Rally Car Race
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- Danger on the High Seas Danger on the High Seas Section 3 308-313 In 1803, Great Britain and France went to war. Both countries wanted to stop U.S. ships from delivering to their enemy much needed supplies. Both countries passed laws which allowed their navies and privateers to capture ships that were supplying the enemy. Unfortunately, the majority of those ships belonged to U.S. businesses. Many U.S. ships and tons of cargo was captured. If the British captured a U.S. ship, they sometimes forced the sailors to serve on their warships. This is known as Impressment.
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- Danger on the High Seas In 1807, impressment made national news and created widespread resentment towards Britain. The HMS Leopard stopped the USS Chesapeake and tried to remove 4 sailors. The captain of the Chesapeake refused to hand them over, so the Leopard opened fire and took the sailors by force.
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- A Trade War Many Americans favored going to war with Britain while others favored an embargo = the banning of trade with Britain. Jefferson and the Republicans favored an embargo and in 1807 passed the Embargo Act = the law that banned trade with foreign countries. The New England states were hit hard by the Embargo Act because most of their profits came from trade with foreign countries. U.S. businesses eventually ignored the law and smuggled goods to foreign countries. Great Britain and France were not affected by the law, and Jeffersons popularity fell.
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- The Rise of Tecumseh In the early 1800s, thousands of American settlers were entering the Northwest Territory. Because of the Treaty of Greenville, many American Indian tribes were forced to give up their lands. Great Britain wanted to slow U.S. westward expansion, but didnt want to go to war with the U.S. The British government gave military aid to Indian tribes living in the NW Territory. Tecumseh was a powerful Indian leader who wanted to organize NW Territory tribes against the U.S. settlers.
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- War on the Frontier
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- William Henry Harrison Governor of the Indiana Territory felt that Tecumseh was a threat to U.S. power. He met with Tecumseh and reminded him of his obligation to follow the treaties. Tecumseh said that the treaties were not valid because no single chief could sell land belonging to all Indians and the Indians were on the land first. Harrison warned Tecumseh not to mess with the U.S.
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- War on the Frontier Tecumseh left his tribe to travel south to make an alliance with southern tribes. While he was gone, Harrison raised an army and marched to Tecumsehs tribal settlement. In November of 1811, Harrisons army and Tecumsehs tribe fought an all-day battle at the Battle
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