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  • Schematic of canister repository

    Issue 168 September/October 2010

    Diary events

    November 2010

    Joint TWI/DVS Conference Latest developments in joining plastics in mass production and fabrication Tue 2 Düsseldorf

    FESI Seminar Structural integrity of welded structures – what have we learnt? Wed 3 Great Abington

    Pressure and Process Plant Technical Group Meeting Nuclear new build in the UK Thu 4 Great Abington

    TWI Annual Dinner Tue 9 London

    Structural Integrity Technical Group Meeting Strain based fracture assessment Tue 23 Great Abington


    18th IoRW Technical Seminar Developments in rail inspection Wed 1 Great Abington

    WJS Seminar Standards for offshore power and low carbon energy Wed 8 Middlesbrough

    Workshops and seminars are recognised

    Continuous Professional Development events

    T h e m a g a z i n e o f T W I

    w w w . t w i . c o . u k e - m a i l : t w i @ t w i . c o . u k

    The safe and effective storage and disposal of high level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) arising from nuclear power generation is a global issue, posing major technical challenges. When TWI was asked by Nagra to advise on suitable welding technologies for hot cell encapsulation of HLW and SF, TWI was able to establish a multi- disciplinary team to investigate the best choice of welding processes. Nagra is the Swiss national co-operative for the disposal of radioactive waste and is responsible for final disposal of all types of radioactive waste produced in Switzerland.

    TWI was selected for the project due to significant experience with other long term

    dry cask and repository storage projects for the global nuclear industry such as the successful development of friction stir welded copper canisters for SKB and the hot cell welding procedures for closure of the canisters to be stored in Yucca Mountain.

    From the outset it was clear that the Nagra approach to encapsulation would pose entirely new challenges to the welding processes. The chosen material for the canister construction was to be carbon steel, 190mm thickness with a minimum lifetime of 1000 years. The timescale for development also added challenges. With the weld production not scheduled until 2035, all processes had to be considered.

    After brainstorming, literature reviews and preliminary investigations TWI engineers reduced the list of potentially viable welding processes from over thirty to two: electron beam welding (EBW) and narrow gap tungsten inert gas (NG- TIG) welding. These processes were then researched and investigated extensively and all details of advantages, disadvantages and the technology readiness level were reported. This included in-depth analysis of potential metallurgical and residual stress issues arising from each of the potential techniques. In addition to the welding process technology, methods of non destructively testing the welds in a hot

    Selection of welding processes for high level nuclear waste encapsulation

    continued on p. 2

    CSWIP Welding QC Co-ordinator – a popular new scheme

  • 2

    September/October 2010

    Connect September /October 2010 w w w . t w i . c o . u k e - m a i l : t w i @ t w i . c o . u k

    Aker Solutions (Drilling Risers) USA Oil and gas engineering

    Cytec Industries UK Ltd UK Coatings and composites

    Fotolec Technologies Ltd UK Shatterproof coatings application to standard lamps

    ILVA SpA Italy Steel production of flat products and welded pipe

    ITER Organisation - Magnet Division France Development of magnet technology for the ITER programme

    Johnson & Starley Ltd UK Manufacturer of heating and ventilation products

    Swagelining Limited UK Provision of integrated lining systems

    TATA Steel Ltd India Design, manufacture and supply of plant equipment and cranes

    Woodside Energy Ltd Australia Oil and gas exploration, production and development

    Welding Alloys Ltd UK Welding consumables, machines and service

    New Members of TWI

    TWI is pleased to welcome the following as Industrial Members

    Aerospace Industry Panel TWI held its 35th Aerospace Panel Meeting on 15 September 2010, with attendees from the UK, Japan, USA, Brazil, Germany, France and Sweden.

    There were TWI presentations on microwave curing of composites, cold spray forming for additive manufacture, developments in high brightness laser processing and EB welding of crack sensitive materials.

    This was supplemented by excellent presentations from MTU, GKN Aerospace and BAE Systems.

    Two Group Sponsored Meetings took place the previous day and there were several meetings between Industrial Members and TWI staff during the week.

    The next Aerospace Panel Meeting is scheduled for 16 March 2011, with two Group Sponsored Project Meetings due to take place on 15 March and a linear friction welding seminar planned for 17 March.

    Details will follow in due course and more information can be obtained by contacting Richard Freeman, the Aerospace Industry Sector Manager at

    cell environment were also investigated and reported.

    The results of TWI’s work were published in a Nagra report and presented at a meeting in Wettinngen, Switzerland. TWI’s report was subsequently issued

    publicly along with a previously published material selection report. This work formed a precursor for a multi-year study to develop designs for carbon steel canisters, which was issued as an open tender in March 2010.

    TWI (with Hitachi Zosen Corporation as a subcontractor) successfully bid for this competitive tender. Nagra evaluated the offers received on the basis of the financial offer, qualification and experience of the bidder, qualification and experience of the experts, proposed project work plan and an oral presentation made to Nagra. For more information about this project and TWI’s services to the nuclear industry please contact:, or

    Cross-section of hot wire, narrow gap gas tunsten arc welding in180mm P91 steel

    Single pass, fully penetrating electron beam weld in 280mm thickness C-Mn steel

    continued from p.1

  • w w w . t w i . c o . u k e - m a i l : t w i @ t w i . c o . u k Connect September /October 2010

    September/October 2010


    The TSB collaborative project Advanced Design Partitioning and Test for System in Package electronics (ADEPT-SiP) has now come to a close. Partners within the project were:

    • TWI: lead partner, assembly, reliability, environmental research

    • Filtronic Broadband: RF communications end-user

    • Zarlink Semiconductor: medical modules end-user

    • Zuken: design flow, partitioning, supply chain management

    • AWR: RF design flow, Process Design Kits (PDKs)

    • Leeds University: RF simulation, models, PDKs

    • Mentor Graphics: thermal design

    • QuantumCAD: design rules, layout

    • Wurth Elektronik: process architectures, manufacture

    The partners formed a complete supply chain for production of a SiP module.

    The objective of the ADEPT- SiP project was to develop and demonstrate a rigorous, right-first-time design and supply chain management methodology for novel SiP electronics. The ADEPT-SiP module architecture involved a high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board with integrated passive components. One face of the HDI substrate was allocated for RF functions and the other for digital functions. Active devices were mounted by wire bonding or flip chip bonding on both the upper and lower faces of the module substrate.

    A design kit has been successfully produced that can select which passives to integrate according to cost and other priorities. Models have been integrated into the design kit, to show RF performance of the passive components and interconnect. Resistors, capacitors and inductors have been successfully printed onto a HDI substrate and achieved close to design values. Thermal cycling, humidity testing and highly accelerated stress testing has been used to test the reliability of the embedded passives.

    Demonstration medical and RF modules were produced, showing promising results for commercial products.

    For further information, please contact

    ADEPT at System in Package – collaborative project draws to a successful close

    Active devices

    ADEPT- SiP module

    HDI substrate

    Mother board


  • Connect September /October 2010 w w w . t w i . c o . u k e - m a i l : t w i @ t w i . c o . u k4

    Technology Transfer

    In Part 1 the importance of cleanliness, particularly the removal of all sulphur containing compounds, was mentioned. With respect to defect free welding of nickel and its alloys this cannot be over-emphasised.

    As well as sulphur, however, there are several other substances that can lead to embrittlement of the nickel alloys when they are exposed to high temperatures. Amongst these are lead, phosphorus, boron and bismuth.

    These may be present in oils, grease, cutting fluids, paints, marker pen inks, temperature indicating crayons, etc; it may not be possible to avoid using these during fabrication so it is essential that these are removed