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  • THE JEWEL ORNAMENT OF LIBERATION

    The Wish-fulfilling Gem of the Noble Teachings

    by

    Gampopa

    translated by Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen Rinpoche

    edited by Ani K. Trinlay Chodron

    Snow Lion Publications Ithaca, New York

  • Snow Lion Publications P.O. Box 6483 Ithaca, New York 14851 tel: 607-273-8519

    Copyright © 1998 Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen

    All rights reserved. No portion of this work may be reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the publisher.

    ISBN 1-55939-092-1

    Printed in Canada

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Sgam-po-pa, 1079-1153 [Dam chos yid bzin gyi nor bu thar pa rin po che'i rgyan. English] The

    jewel ornament of liberation: the wish-fulfilling gem of the noble teachings / by Gampopa; translated Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen Rinpoche; edited by Ani K. Trinlay Chodron.

    p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-55939-092-1 (alk. paper) 1. Bodhisattva stages (Mahayana Buddhism)-Early works to 1800.

    2. Religious life-Mahayana Buddhism-Early works to 1800. 3. Mahayana Buddhism-Doctrines-Early works to 1800.1. Gyaltsen, Khenpo Rinpochay Konchok, 1946- . II. Emmerich, Delia. III. Title. BQ4330.S513 1998 98-9899 294.3'42-dc21 CIP

    Quotes from Stephen Batchelor A Guide to the Bodhisattva s Way of Life (Dharamsala: LTWA, 1979) and Ken and Katia Holmes The Changeless Nature (Eskdalemuir: Karma Drubgyud Darjay Ling, 1985) are used with permission from the publishers.

  • Table of Contents

    Foreword by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama 13 Acknowledgments 14 Translator's Introduction 15

    Homage 44 Introduction 45

    PART 1: THE PRIMARY CAUSE 47 Chapter 1: Buddha-Nature 49

    I. Disconnected Family 50 II. Indefinite Family 51

    III. Hearer Family 51 IV. Solitary Realizer Family 51 V. Mahayana Family 53

    A. Classification 53 B. Definition 53 C. Synonyms 53 D. Superiority 54 E. Causal Characteristics 54 F. Marks 54

    PART 2: THE WORKING BASIS 57 Chapter 2: The Precious Human Life 59

    I. Leisure 59 II. Endowment 60

  • III. Trusting Faith 65 IV. Longing Faith 65 V. Clear Faith 65

    PART 3: THE CONTRIBUTORY CAUSE 67 Chapter 3: The Spiritual Master 69

    I. Reason 69 II. Classification 71

    III. Characteristics of Each Classification 72 IV. Method 73 V. Benefits 75

    PART 4: THE METHOD 77 Introduction to Part 4 79

    Antidote to Attachment to this Life 81 Chapter 4: Impermanence 83

    I. Classification 83 II. Method of Meditation 84

    III. Beneficial Effects of Meditation 91

    Antidote to Attachment to Samsara's Pleasure 93 Chapter 5: The Suffering of Samsara 95

    I. All-Pervasive Suffering 95 II. The Suffering of Change 96

    III. The Suffering of Suffering 97 A. Hell Realm 97 B. Hungry Ghost Realm 102 C. Animal Realm 102 D. Human Realms 103 E. Demi-God Realm 108 F. God Realm 108

    Chapter 6: Karma and its Result 111 I. Classification 112

    II. Primary Characteristics of Each Classification 112 A. Non-Meritorious Karma and its Result 112

    1. Taking Life 112 2. Stealing 113 3. Sexual Misconduct 113 4. Lying 114 5. Divisive Speech 114

  • Antidote to Not Knowing the Method of Practice for Achieving Buddhahood 133 Introduction to the Antidote to Not Knowing the Method of

    Practice 135 Chapter 8: Refuge and Precepts 137

    I. Foundation 137 A. Mahayana Family 138 B. Taking Refuge in the Three Jewels 138

    1. Classification 139 2. Working Basis 139 3. Objects 139

    6. Harsh Words 114 7. Idle Talk 115 8. Covetousness 115 9. Harmful Thought 116

    10. Wrong Views 116 B. Meritorious Karma and Result 117 C. Karma and Result of Unshakable Meditative

    Concentration 118 III. Ascription 119 IV. Strict Result 120 V. Increase from the Small 120

    VI. Inevitability 121

    Antidote to Attachment to the Pleasure of Peace 123 Chapter 7: Loving-Kindness and Compassion 125

    I. The Practice of Loving-Kindness 125 A. Classification 126 B. Object 126 C. Identifying Characteristic 126 D. Method of Practice 126 E. Measure of the Practice 129 E Qualities of the Practice 129

    II. The Practice of Compassion 129 A. Classification 130 B. Object 130 C. Identifying Characteristic 130 D. Method of Practice • 130 E. Measure of the Practice 131 E Qualities of the Practice 131

    Antidote to Not Knowinv the Method of Practice for

  • 4. Time 141 5. Motivation 141 6. Ceremony 141 7. Activities 143 8. Training 143 9. Beneficial Effects 143

    C. Pratimoksa Precepts 144

    Chapter* Cultivation of Bodhicitta 147 II. Essence 147

    III. Classification 147 IV. Objectives 151 V. Cause 151

    VI. From Whom You Receive It 152 VII. Method (Ceremony) 153

    VIII. Beneficial Effects 168 IX. Disadvantages of Losing It 171 X. The Cause of Losing It 171

    XL The Method of Repairing 172

    Chapter 10: Training in Aspiration Bodhicitta 173 XII. Training 173

    A. Training in Aspiration Bodhicitta 173 1. Not Forsaking Sentient Beings from

    One's Heart 173 2. Recollecting the Beneficial Effects

    of Bodhicitta 174 3. Gathering the Two Accumulations 175 4. Practicing the Enlightened Mind 175 5. Rejection of the Four Unwholesome

    Deeds and Acceptance of the Four Wholesome Deeds 176

    Chapter 11: Training in Action Bodhicitta 179 B. Training in Action Bodhicitta 179

    1. Definite Number 180 2. Definite Order 180 3. Characteristics 181 4. Definition 181 5. Division 181 6. Grouping 182

  • Chapter 12: The Perfection of Generosity 183 I. Reflection on the Faults and Virtues 183

    II. Definition 185 III. Classification 185 IV. Characteristics of Each Classification 185 V. Increase 191

    VI. Perfection 191 VII. Result 192

    Chapter 13: The Perfection of Moral Ethics 195 I. Reflection on the Faults and Virtues 195

    II. Definition 197 III. Classification 197 IV. Characteristics of Each Classification 197 V. Increase 202

    VI. Perfection 202 VII. Result 202

    Chapter 14: The Perfection of Patience 205 I. Reflection on the Faults and Virtues 205

    II. Definition 207 III. Classification 207 IV. Characteristics of Each Classification 207 V. Increase 211

    VI. Perfection 211 VII. Result 211

    Chapter 15: The Perfection of Perseverance 213 I. Reflection on the Faults and Virtues 213

    II. Definition 214 III. Classification 216 IV. Characteristics of Each Classification 216 V. Increase 218

    VI. Perfection 218 VII. Result 218

    Chapter 16: The Perfection of Meditative Concentration 219 I. Reflection on the Faults and Virtues 219

    II. Definition 220 III. Classification 229 IV. Characteristics of Each Classification 229 V. Increase 230

  • VI. Perfection 230 VII. Result 231

    Chapter 17: The Perfection of Wisdom Awareness 233 I. Reflection on the Faults and Virtues 233

    II. Definition 235 III. Classification 235 IV. Characteristics of Each Classification 235 V. What is to be Known 236

    VI. What is to be Practiced 247 VII. Result 255

    Chapter 18: The Aspects of the Five Paths 257 I. Path of Accumulation 257

    II. Path of Application 258 III. Path of Insight 259 IV. Path of Meditation 259 V Path of Perfection 260

    Chapter 19: The Ten Bodhisattva Bhumis 263 I. Definition 264

    II. Significance of the Buhims 264 III. The Reason Their Classification Is Tenfold 264

    A. First Bhumi 265 B. Second Bhumi 267 C. Third Bhumi 268 D. Fourth Bhumi 269 E. Fifth Bhumi 270 F. Sixth Bhumi 271 G. Seventh Bhumi 272 H. Eighth Bhumi 273 I. Ninth Bhumi 274 J. Tenth Bhumi 275 K. Buddhahood 277

    PART 5: THE RESULT 279

    Chapter 20: Perfect Buddhahood 281 I. Nature 281

    II. Significance of the Name 286 III. Classification 287 IV. Definition 287

  • V. Reason There Are Definitely Three Kayas 288 VI. Characteristics of the Three Kayas 288

    VII. Special Traits 292

    PART 6: THE ACTIVITIES 295

    Chapter 21: Activities of the Buddha 297 I. Activities of the Body 297

    II. Activities of Speech 298 III. Activities of Mind 299

    APPENDICES 303 Appendix A: Dharma Lord Gampopa 305

    Section 1: A Brief Account of Dharma Lord Gampopa's Life 305

    Section 2: Miraculous Manifestations 323 Section 3: Gampopa's Method of Teaching 325

    Appendix B: Stories Referred to in the Text 333 Sudhana 335 Sadaprarudita 340 King Anala 348 Maudgalyayana 351 Sangharakshita 357 Nawa Chewari 362 Old Born 366 King Krika's Daughters 368 Mahadatta 371 King Bala Maitreya 379 Angulimala 381 Udayana 385 Nanda 388 Ajatashatru 393

    Appendix C: Outline of the Text 397 Appendix D: A Brief Biography of the Translator 413

    Titles of Works Quoted 417 Glossary 427 Notes J 437 Bibliography 459 Index 467

  • Dedication

    This book is dedicated to His Supreme Holiness, Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, the unparalleled earthly example of uncontrived outer and inner peace, and to my root lamas whose kindnesses are unrepayable.

  • THE DALAI LAMA

    Foreword

    I am pleased to learn that the Drikung Kagyu Tibetan Meditation Cen- ter is publishing an English version of Gampopa's Jewel Ornament of Liberation. Gampopa is also known by the name Dakpo Lhaje—"The Physician from Dakpo." Of all the disciples of Milarepa, the two most important were called "the sun and the moon," and Gampopa was the sun disciple. He was a great, kind-hearted teacher and a practitio- ner of vast learning and discipline. This text is an excellent work that reflects the blending of two systems of teaching—t