the doctrine of Śiva and Śakti

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  • 8/12/2019 The Doctrine of iva and akti



    The Doctrine of iva and aktiIn kashmir shaivism

    Dr.Surinder pal Associate professor Govt. Ripudaman College


    #ashmir shaivism is purel$ a non%dualistic s$stem of philosoph$.The upreme &ord's different names in the s$stem are Anuttara1chaitan$a( Citi)*ahesavara etc.The +ord ,aramasiva - the greatlord is used here in masculine gender +ho is manifest as the/essence and identit$' of ever$thing. 0e shines forth in ever$ form

    of eistence as 0is self -Atman2

    .0e is consciousness resting initself and is all%pervasive.0e is unrestricted stream of desire i.e.3ree +ill. 0e is al+a$s e4uipped +ith the triple po+er of +illcognition and action5.

    ,arama6iva -the supreme realit$ has t+o aspects one "eing 0istranscendence -,ara Anu$ttara and visvottirana dasa and the otheris 0is immanence -Apara and visavama$a dasa. Thetranscendence is 0is pre%cosmic state +hich is a state of non%differentiation and rest of all po+ers. In the second state 0eundergoes division in the form of diverse o"7ects in the +orld. Inthis state of immanence ,arama6iva's -the supreme realit$ po+ersof +ill kno+ledge and action stream forth from 0is original stateof transcendence. 8oth of these states the first is also kno+n asSiva and the second state is kno+n as Sakti in the s$stem. Thus 0eis Siva "$ virtue of his transcendental aspect 0e is Sakti "$ virtueof 0is immanent aspect. All this is mere dialectical usage "ecausesakti is no+here different from Siva. 9nl$ one a"solute God is

    contemplated as Siva and Sakti on account of 0is "eing on the onehand the transcendental pure consciousness alone and on theother hand the +hole phenomenal eistence as +ell. akti isSivadrsti:'s po+er and iva is its possessor. 8oth are intimatel$"ound +ith each other as heat +ith fire and coolness +ith ice;.Thus "oth are never separate. The relationship of consists of the

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    insight that apparentl$ different things are identical. The s$stem admits that the opposites separate and merge inrh$thm +ith the pulsing union of iva and akti. This pla$ ofopposites is itself the a"solute the form of the spanda -d$namic

    po+er as it +ere this nature of "eing unlimited saktiin the process of involution "ecause it "ecomes more and moreo"scured at ever$ step of it in the process of evolution 0e

    recogni?es 0is forgotten Sakti +hich shines +ith an everincreasing lusture at ever$ step of it. As soon as a "eing recogni?eshis forgotten po+ers of godhead he re%attains his sivahood. Thussivahood can "e recogni?ed through the eperience of differentaspects of sakti@. akti -the universal energ$ has therefore "eensaid in the i7nana"hairava to "e1Bthe face of siva. ust as a personcan easil$ "e recogni?ed "$ o"serving his facial appearing so canthe self "e identified as siva reali?ing its godl$ po+ers +hich arethe different aspects of sakti. If a person +ould like to eamine+hether there is an$ fire in his fire%pot he +ill certainl$ tr$ toascertain if there is an$ light or heat in it. &ight and heat are thet+o po+ers of fire and are its t+o faces as it +ere. 3ire can "erecogni?ed through these t+o faces of it. In the same +a$ are thedifferent aspects of sakti the t+o faces of siva.

    iva is one and his akti is also onl$ one and kno+s no limits at

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    all. It is on account of the stir of spanda that one supreme sakti ofthe lord three five seven and numerous aspects. The one Supremesakti of the lord is his a"solute Godhead that keeps 0im everpulsulating to and fro and that pulsation of +hich results in the

    appearance of unit$ and diversit$. The follo+ing ma$ "econsidered to "e the main ones1. Cit % The po+er of self revelation the changeless principle of allchanges. In this aspect the Supreme is kno+n as Siva and evereffulgent.(. Ananda %It is a state of a"solute "lissfulness. This is also calledSvatantr$a i.e sovereign po+er of the &ord Siva. Cit is as anocean is ever pulsuating and surging and the +ave of cit created

    "$ that pulsation is anada.). Iccha or +ill % In this aspect the self "liss of God vi"rates out ashis +ill to manifest out+ardl$.2. nana or kno+ledge % The said aspect of Iccha +hen takes theform of self manifestation the lod's po+er is kno+n as 7nana sakti.5. #ri$a % iva's po+er of assuming ever$ form is kno+n as kri$asakti. This is that po+er of appearing in an$ form "$ +hich ivaactualises 0imself from macrocosm to microcosm.

    These are the five po+es of the Supreme &ord +hich are everinter%connected and +orking together to give shape to the thoughtof the universal mind of the ultimate Realit$. The &ord is possessed of the capacities to create -srsti topreserve - sthiti to a"sor" - samhara to conceal -tirodhan and tograce -anugraha +hich are manifested in five super gods or fiveagents kno+n "$ the names% 8rahma isnu Rudra Isvara andSadasiva. These five capacities of &ord are kno+n as five acts inthe s$stem. It should "e noted here that these functions areenumerated accordingl$ descent of parama6iva "ut these shouldnot taken as a rigid succession or order. The Supreme &ord "einga"solutel$ free in all respects is not reall$ speaking "ound inprinciple "$ a logical succession of these said functions -kEt$as. The first is also kno+n as TirodhFna literall$ means selflimitation. Through +hich ,arama6iva imposes limitations on his

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    limitless nature and appears as mini%6iva -individual "eing. Afterimposing limitations on his limitless nature he appears as a limited"eing and faces all the difficulties of limited life. This all is done"$ 0im at his o+n +ill11. 8efore this eperience he +as

    eperiencing his pure and full I%ness onl$ "ut at this level 0e startsto eperience his self imposed limitations also. In thetranscendental state the su"7ect holds +ithin itself the unmanifestuniverse as 0is ideal eperience. In the perfect apprehension ofSupreme egoit$ all of +ant and the o"7ects shine in identit$ +iththe Su"7ect.1(At this level pure I%ness "ecomes impure andmultiplicit$ takes place. This is necessar$ pre%condition for theemergence of phenomenal universe.=hen this act of concealment

    is recognised "$ the individual "eing he again "ecomes parama6ivaand gets free from +orldl$ limitations. Thus this function of self%concealment is kno+n as nigraha in kashmir shaivism.

    The second great function of parama6iva is technicall$ calledas sEti -manifestation in kashmir shaivism. After concealing hisreal nature parama6iva -ultimate realit$ appears as the universe. Inkashmir shaivism the +orld is descri"es as a drama or pla$ in

    +hich parama6iva is sole producer director and cast of characters.0e pla$s all this pla$ +ith his po+er of self%dependence-svHtantr$a shakti. This is his that capacit$ +ith +hich he iscapa"le to do the impossi"les1). This creation of animate andinanimate creatures is the self%etension of the a"solute lord.12Thesaid all creation is pro7ection of the ltimate Realit$ that is divineconsciousness. This divine consciousness unfolds the universe athis o+n screen like "ackgroundthrough its o+n free +ill and not"$ the +ill of something else15. Jver$thing though animate orinanimate shines on the "ackground of divine consciousnessnothing can shine outside of it1;. According to this s$stem ultimatecausalit$ "elongs to the ultimate realit$ alone. This s$stemassumes the all dualities and differences are manifesting from theultimate realit$ through his self supremac$ onl$. Thus neither theSHmkh$a nor the edHnta theor$ of creation is accepta"le to

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    kashmir shaiva philosophers. 0ereit is also +orth mentioning thatcreation is a mode of self eperience of parama6iva -ultimaterealit$. It is technicall$ called a"hHsa-manifestation in thes$stem. It has "een often descri"ed +ith the help of a metaphor

    +hich is as follo+s%,arama6iva sees himself in a clear mirror +hich is nothing "ut hiso+n shakti1

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    KtivaramandashaktipataL +hich means inferior supreme grace. one+ho has received this grace the desire appears for going to the feetof a spiritual teacher. &ord shiva through these three supremeintensities of grace creates masters in the kingdom of spiritualit$.

    =ith lo+er intensities of grace lords +orth$ disciples.The fourthintensit$ of grace is called Kmad$ativarashaktipataL +hich meansmedium supreme grace. Through this intensit$ of grace thedisciple reaches the feet of that master +ho is a"solutel$ perfect.The fifth intensit$ of grace is called medium middle graceKmadh$amadh$ashaktipataL. =hen lord shiva "esto+s thisparticular intensit$ of grace upon someone the intense desire forachieving the eistense arises in this person's mind. At the same

    time he does not +ant to ignore the en7o$ments of the +orld. Thesith intensit$ of grace is called Kmad$amanda shaktipHtaL +hichmeans medium inferior grace. The effect of this grace that in themind of the disciple arises "oth the desire for attaining the state oflord shiva and the desire for eperiencing +orldl$ pleasures. Thepredominant desire ho+ever is for attaining the state of lordshiva. The remaining three inferior intensities of grace KmandativaraL -inferior supreme Kmanda madh$aL -inferior medium and

    Kmandha mandhaL -inferior inferior % take place in the field ofaspirants living in lokadharmah the kingdom of +orldl$ life.These aspirants have the desire for achieving self%reali?ation thestate of lord shiva onl$ +hen the pains and pressures of this +orld"ecome too much to "ear.

    These five functions are pla$ed on "$ the lord shiva incessantl$+ithout an$ g


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