the determinants of innovative performance : a study of smes in a
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The determinants of innovative performance : a study ofSMEs in a developing countryGunawan, T.
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Citation for published version (APA):Gunawan, T. (2015). The determinants of innovative performance : a study of SMEs in a developing countryEindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
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Download date: 17. Mar. 2018
The Determinants of Innovative
A study of SMEs in a developing country
A catalog record is available from the Eindhoven University of Technology
The Determinants of Innovative Performance: A study of SMEs in a
Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2015
Keywords: innovation, small and medium enterprises, entrepreneurial
orientation, proactiveness, risk-taking, intra-cluster ties, extra-cluster ties,
absorptive capacity, ambidexterity, exploration and exploitation
Eindhoven University of Technology
Department of Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences
Cover design : Kurniawan A.S || CV. Kymtech Solusindo
Printed & Lay Out by : Proefschriftmaken.nl || Uitgeverij BOXPress
2015, Theresia Gunawan. All right reserved.
The Determinants of Innovative
A study of SMEs in a developing country
ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven,
op gezag van de rector magnificus prof.dr.ir. C.J. van Duijn,
voor een commissie aangewezen door het College voor Promoties,
in het openbaar te verdedigen op dinsdag 17 maart 2015 om 16:00 uur
geboren te Tarutung, Indonesi
Dit proefschrift is goedgekeurd door de promotoren en de samenstelling van
de promotiecommissie is als volgt:
Voorzitter : prof.dr.ir. J.W.M. Bertrand
Promotor : prof.dr. G.M. Duysters
copromotor(en) : dr. J. Jacob (Grenoble Ecole de Management)
leden : prof.dr. F. Langerak
: prof.dr. W.A. Naud (Maastricht School of
: prof.dr. A. Szirmai (Universiteit Maastricht)
: prof.dr. W.A. Dolfsma (Rijksuniversiteit
The Determinants of Innovative Performance v
I would like to give my utmost gratitude to my savior Jesus Christ:
without Him, I would not have been able to reach this level. He is the one
who knows my effort and sacrifice in pursuing this Ph.D. research. During
my study, I learned about what persistency and durability can mean in my
life. My study in the Netherlands has given me the chance to meet great
people, to whom I owe a lot in helping me accomplish this milestone in my
A very big and special recognition goes to my promoter, Prof. dr. Geert
Duysters, who has patiently helped me improve my research skills. When I
read my papers from the first and the second years of my study, then
compare them to what I have now, I know that I am improving! I still
remember when Geert told me, "Now you are a researcher!" I cried and felt
so happy; finally, I was making progress. Geert always gives valuable and
precise criticism, comments and suggestions. I would like to thank Geert for
his ongoing support, dedication to my research and competence in helping
me pursue my Ph.D.
Furthermore, I would like to thank Dr. Jojo Jacob; he is the best co-
supervisor ever. I thank him for his expertise and perfectionism in writing
econometrics analysis. I learned the value of a researcher's precision,
circumspection and integrity from him. His commitment and contribution to
this dissertation were invaluable.
Additionally, special thanks also to the chairman, Prof. dr. ir. Will
Bertrand, and the committee members namely Prof. dr. Wim Naude, Prof.
vi The Determinants of Innovative Performance
dr. Adam Szirmai, Prof. dr. Wilfred Dolfsma, Prof. dr. Fred Langerak and
Prof. dr. Ed Nijssen for evaluating this dissertation. The data collection for
it was not easy, since the respondents were surveyed one-by-one, door-to-
door. With regards to this, I would like to thank Vindya Martosewoyo, Bpk.
Kusrapidi and the Cibaduyut Department of Small and Medium Enterprises
for dedicating their time to gathering the data. Additionally, I would like to
thank Dr. Agus Gunawan for giving me support and advice for my study.
My gratitude goes, as well, to H. Yi, who always helps me deal with my
computer issues. I am glad that you are always there to help me in good
times and bad.
Moreover, I would like to thank the Maastricht School of Management
(MSM) for their support: Patrick W. J. Mans, Sandra A. F. Kolkman-Linke
and Rocco and Faye Muhlenberg. I really appreciate your tremendous
support for my study, especially from Patrick a really big thanks to you.
Also, thank you to Bianca van Broeckhoven for helping with much
information, and thank you to Nina Woodson, who put in a lot of effort
editing my dissertation.
In this respect, I would like to thank the rector and all of the professors
and staff at Parahyangan Catholic University: Prof. Robertus Wahyudi
Triweko, Ph.D.; Pius Sugeng Prasetyo, Drs., M.Si., Ph.D. (thank you for
your great support); Dr. J. Dharma Lesmono, S.Si., S.E., M.T., M.Sc.; Dr.
Laurentius Tarpin OSC, S.Ag., L.Th.; Mangadar Situmorang, Drs., M.Si.,
Ph.D.; and especially the head of the Business Administration Department,
Gandhi Pawitan, Ir., M.Sc., Ph.D and Dr. Nia Juliawati M.Si.
Furthermore, I would like to extend my thanks to my friends in
Maastricht: Oom Jo Van Paeschen, Dr. Jol Stoffers and his lovely family,
Tante Christine and Oom Eddy Abbink, Sr. Hedwig Wigiastuti, Sr. Floriana,
Sr. Elisia Terry, Ben Q. Honyenuga, Sandra Sunanto, Maruf, Gorah Kasim
The Determinants of Innovative Performance vii
Abdallah, Prof. dr. James Patterson, Priyanka Jayashankar and Baskhar
(thank you for being my best friends and my hosts in Ames), Ien Bakker,
Patti Yang, Dr. Robert V. Guedegebuure, Dr. Terry Kaketo-Aelen, Arsenio
Kranenburg, Nina Septina, Wilma Latuny, Marcel Oderkerk, Erna, Esther
Mbise, Nguyen Than Hoang and Janet Bagorogoza.
In addition, I would also like to thank all my friends in Tilburg for such
a wonderful friendship: Agnes and Heiko Van den Broek, Zhu Hui (my best
roommate ever), Ed and Margreet van Ouwerkerk, Molly Tolbert, Alyson
Fox, Shelby Erin, Steve Hint, Eric Coombs, Nick Kellogg, Firdha Fitria,
Ahmadh Rifai Kariapper, Made Wulandary and Richard Haans thank you
for the simulation and special thanks to Tim de Leeuw for sharing his
studies. Given my adventurous life in Tilburg, my warmest thanks to my
best friend, Li Zeng, who has brought me great friendship in Tilburg.
I wish to thank my sponsors: the Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate
Scholarship Program (JJWBGSP), the Dikti Research Scholarship program
and the T&P Foundation. Also, many thanks to all professors, staff,
colleagues and friends whose names I am not able to mention, but who were
extremely supportive in many ways in making this dream come true. I
convey my sincere and special thanks to my dad Frans, in heaven, my mom,
Rita, and my sisters, Jenny and Theodora, for their never-ending love and
prayer for me. I am really grateful to be in this family.
Finally, and most importantly, I wish to thank my dear husband,
Kurniawan Antonius Sondjaja, and our lovely daughter, Ke