the determinants of innovative performance : a study of smes in a

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  • The determinants of innovative performance : a study ofSMEs in a developing countryGunawan, T.

    Published: 01/01/2015

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    Citation for published version (APA):Gunawan, T. (2015). The determinants of innovative performance : a study of SMEs in a developing countryEindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

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    Download date: 17. Mar. 2018

  • The Determinants of Innovative


    A study of SMEs in a developing country

    Theresia Gunawan

  • A catalog record is available from the Eindhoven University of Technology


    ISBN: 978-90-386-3800-3

    Gunawan, Theresia

    The Determinants of Innovative Performance: A study of SMEs in a

    developing country

    Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2015

    Keywords: innovation, small and medium enterprises, entrepreneurial

    orientation, proactiveness, risk-taking, intra-cluster ties, extra-cluster ties,

    absorptive capacity, ambidexterity, exploration and exploitation

    Eindhoven University of Technology

    Department of Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences


    Cover design : Kurniawan A.S || CV. Kymtech Solusindo

    Printed & Lay Out by : || Uitgeverij BOXPress

    2015, Theresia Gunawan. All right reserved.

  • The Determinants of Innovative


    A study of SMEs in a developing country


    ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de

    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven,

    op gezag van de rector magnificus C.J. van Duijn,

    voor een commissie aangewezen door het College voor Promoties,

    in het openbaar te verdedigen op dinsdag 17 maart 2015 om 16:00 uur


    Theresia Gunawan

    geboren te Tarutung, Indonesi

  • Dit proefschrift is goedgekeurd door de promotoren en de samenstelling van

    de promotiecommissie is als volgt:

    Voorzitter : J.W.M. Bertrand

    Promotor : prof.dr. G.M. Duysters

    copromotor(en) : dr. J. Jacob (Grenoble Ecole de Management)

    leden : prof.dr. F. Langerak

    : prof.dr. W.A. Naud (Maastricht School of


    : prof.dr. A. Szirmai (Universiteit Maastricht)

    : prof.dr. W.A. Dolfsma (Rijksuniversiteit


  • The Determinants of Innovative Performance v


    I would like to give my utmost gratitude to my savior Jesus Christ:

    without Him, I would not have been able to reach this level. He is the one

    who knows my effort and sacrifice in pursuing this Ph.D. research. During

    my study, I learned about what persistency and durability can mean in my

    life. My study in the Netherlands has given me the chance to meet great

    people, to whom I owe a lot in helping me accomplish this milestone in my


    A very big and special recognition goes to my promoter, Prof. dr. Geert

    Duysters, who has patiently helped me improve my research skills. When I

    read my papers from the first and the second years of my study, then

    compare them to what I have now, I know that I am improving! I still

    remember when Geert told me, "Now you are a researcher!" I cried and felt

    so happy; finally, I was making progress. Geert always gives valuable and

    precise criticism, comments and suggestions. I would like to thank Geert for

    his ongoing support, dedication to my research and competence in helping

    me pursue my Ph.D.

    Furthermore, I would like to thank Dr. Jojo Jacob; he is the best co-

    supervisor ever. I thank him for his expertise and perfectionism in writing

    econometrics analysis. I learned the value of a researcher's precision,

    circumspection and integrity from him. His commitment and contribution to

    this dissertation were invaluable.

    Additionally, special thanks also to the chairman, Prof. dr. ir. Will

    Bertrand, and the committee members namely Prof. dr. Wim Naude, Prof.


    vi The Determinants of Innovative Performance

    dr. Adam Szirmai, Prof. dr. Wilfred Dolfsma, Prof. dr. Fred Langerak and

    Prof. dr. Ed Nijssen for evaluating this dissertation. The data collection for

    it was not easy, since the respondents were surveyed one-by-one, door-to-

    door. With regards to this, I would like to thank Vindya Martosewoyo, Bpk.

    Kusrapidi and the Cibaduyut Department of Small and Medium Enterprises

    for dedicating their time to gathering the data. Additionally, I would like to

    thank Dr. Agus Gunawan for giving me support and advice for my study.

    My gratitude goes, as well, to H. Yi, who always helps me deal with my

    computer issues. I am glad that you are always there to help me in good

    times and bad.

    Moreover, I would like to thank the Maastricht School of Management

    (MSM) for their support: Patrick W. J. Mans, Sandra A. F. Kolkman-Linke

    and Rocco and Faye Muhlenberg. I really appreciate your tremendous

    support for my study, especially from Patrick a really big thanks to you.

    Also, thank you to Bianca van Broeckhoven for helping with much

    information, and thank you to Nina Woodson, who put in a lot of effort

    editing my dissertation.

    In this respect, I would like to thank the rector and all of the professors

    and staff at Parahyangan Catholic University: Prof. Robertus Wahyudi

    Triweko, Ph.D.; Pius Sugeng Prasetyo, Drs., M.Si., Ph.D. (thank you for

    your great support); Dr. J. Dharma Lesmono, S.Si., S.E., M.T., M.Sc.; Dr.

    Laurentius Tarpin OSC, S.Ag., L.Th.; Mangadar Situmorang, Drs., M.Si.,

    Ph.D.; and especially the head of the Business Administration Department,

    Gandhi Pawitan, Ir., M.Sc., Ph.D and Dr. Nia Juliawati M.Si.

    Furthermore, I would like to extend my thanks to my friends in

    Maastricht: Oom Jo Van Paeschen, Dr. Jol Stoffers and his lovely family,

    Tante Christine and Oom Eddy Abbink, Sr. Hedwig Wigiastuti, Sr. Floriana,

    Sr. Elisia Terry, Ben Q. Honyenuga, Sandra Sunanto, Maruf, Gorah Kasim


    The Determinants of Innovative Performance vii

    Abdallah, Prof. dr. James Patterson, Priyanka Jayashankar and Baskhar

    (thank you for being my best friends and my hosts in Ames), Ien Bakker,

    Patti Yang, Dr. Robert V. Guedegebuure, Dr. Terry Kaketo-Aelen, Arsenio

    Kranenburg, Nina Septina, Wilma Latuny, Marcel Oderkerk, Erna, Esther

    Mbise, Nguyen Than Hoang and Janet Bagorogoza.

    In addition, I would also like to thank all my friends in Tilburg for such

    a wonderful friendship: Agnes and Heiko Van den Broek, Zhu Hui (my best

    roommate ever), Ed and Margreet van Ouwerkerk, Molly Tolbert, Alyson

    Fox, Shelby Erin, Steve Hint, Eric Coombs, Nick Kellogg, Firdha Fitria,

    Ahmadh Rifai Kariapper, Made Wulandary and Richard Haans thank you

    for the simulation and special thanks to Tim de Leeuw for sharing his

    studies. Given my adventurous life in Tilburg, my warmest thanks to my

    best friend, Li Zeng, who has brought me great friendship in Tilburg.

    I wish to thank my sponsors: the Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate

    Scholarship Program (JJWBGSP), the Dikti Research Scholarship program

    and the T&P Foundation. Also, many thanks to all professors, staff,

    colleagues and friends whose names I am not able to mention, but who were

    extremely supportive in many ways in making this dream come true. I

    convey my sincere and special thanks to my dad Frans, in heaven, my mom,

    Rita, and my sisters, Jenny and Theodora, for their never-ending love and

    prayer for me. I am really grateful to be in this family.

    Finally, and most importantly, I wish to thank my dear husband,

    Kurniawan Antonius Sondjaja, and our lovely daughter, Ke


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