the buddhist path to awakening - dhammasanganiabhidhamma- ... the nine years since the first edition

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  • THE BUDDHIST PATH TO

    AWAKENING

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  • THE BUDDHIST PATH TO

    AWAKENING

    R M. L. GETHIN

    O N E W O R L D

    O X F O R D

  • THE BUDDHIST PATH TO AWAKENING

    Oneworld Publications (Sales and Editorial) 185 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 7AR

    England www.oneworld-publications.com

    This edition O R.M.L. Gethin 2001 Previously published by E. J. Brill 1992

    Converted to digital printing 2003

    All rights reserved. Copyright under Berne Convention. A CIP record for this title is available

    from the British Library.

    ISBN 1-85168-285-6

    Cover design by Design Deluxe Cover image shows a Burmese statue of Sariputta

    NL08

  • For my m ~ t h e r and father

  • CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION .......... . 1 The academic study of religion: some reflections on methodology 1

    ....... 2 . Some perspectives on the early Buddhist tradition and P5li literature 6 .................................. . 3 What does the Buddhism of the NikByas teach? 16

    ............ 4 . The thirty-seven bodhi-pakkhiyd dhammd: preliminary remarks 22

    PART ONE

    THE SEVEN SETS INDIVIDUALLY

    I THE ESTABLISHING OF MINDFULNESS ............................................................ 1 . What are the satipa!!hdnas? 29

    ................................................................................ 2 . What is sati? 36 ................................... 3 . The MahBsatipatfhSna- and SatipaffhBna-suttas 44 ................................... 4 . The exegesis of the basic satipaghnna formula 47

    ................................................. 5 . The expanded satipafthdna formula 53 ..................................................................... 6 . The ekdyana formula 59

    .................................................................................. 7 . Conclusion 66

    I1 THE RIGHT ENDEAVOURS .................. 1 . The basic formula: samnza-ppadhdna and samyak-prahdna 69

    ........................................................... 2 . The formula in the NikByas 7'2 .............................................................. 3 . The SamanamandikB-sutta 76

    ............................................................ 4 . Commentarial explanations 78

    I11 THE BASES OF SUCCESS ......................................................................... 1 . The basic formula 81

    ............................................................... 2 . The iddhi-pdda samyutta $82 ........................................... 3 . The suttanta-bhdjaniya of the Vibhariga 85

    ............................................................. 4 . The commentarial analysis 87 ............................. 5 . The desire to act. strength. mind. and investigation 90

    ................................... 6 . The northern tradition and the Nettippakarana 92 ...................................... 7 . The iddhi-pddas and the prolongation of life 94

    8 . The notion of iddhi in the NikHyas ................................................... 97 9 . The method of developing iddhi .................................................... 101

  • ... vlll CONTENTS

    IV THE FACULTIES AND POWERS . ............... ................ 1 The notion of indriya: twenty-two indriyas .... 104

    ........................................................... . 2 Faith. truth and knowledge 106 .......................... ......................... . 3 Saddhd. pasdda. and sot6patti .... 112

    ................................................. . ........... 4 The remaining indriyas .. 116 . . .............................. 5 The indriya-sanzyutta: the sarnudaya. etc formula 119

    .......................... . 6 The indriya-samyutta: the 'relative strength' formula 126 ..................................... . 7 The lesser stream-attainer (c$a.sotdpanna) 133

    . ...................... 8 Conclusion: the ubiquity of the indriyas in the NikByas 138 .............................................................. . ............ 9 The balas ..... 140

    V FACTORS OF AWAKENING .............................................................................. . 1 The bare list 146

    ......................................... . 2 Dhamma. dhammas and dhamma-vicaya 147 ...................................................................... . 3 Piti and passaddhi 154

    ................................................................................... . 4 Upekkhd 156 . ........ 5 The definitions of the Patisambhiddmagga and the commentaries 160

    ................................. . 6 The bojjharigas and the viveka-nissita formula 162 ..................................................... . 7 The bojjhariga process formula 168

    .............................................................. . 8 The bojjhariga-samyutta 173 ............................... . 9 The bojjharigas according to the commentaries 183

    VI THE NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH ....................... ......................... 1 . General: the individual factors .. 190

    ..................................... 2 . The BBrBnHsi discourse and the middle way 197 ................................... 3 . The way leading to the cessation of suffering 201

    .................................................. 4 . The significance of the term ariya 205 ............................. 5 . The ariyo attharigiko maggo and the gradual path 207

    ......................................... 6 . The eight factors in the Dhammasarigani 212 ............................................................ 7 . The MahBcattWisaka-sutta 216

    ......................... 8 . The ariyo a.t,tharigiko maggo and the notion of 'path' 223

    PART TWO

    THE SEVEN SETS COLLECTIVELY

    VII THE SEVEN SETS IN THE NIKAYAS .......................... 1 . Preliminary remarks: different usages distinguished 229

    ........... 2 . The appeal to the seven sets as dhammas taught by the Buddha 229 ............................................................ 3 . The seven sets as the path 240

    ................................................................... 4 . The path as 'stream'. 247 ......................................... 5 . The mahd-vagga of the Samyutta-nikdya 252

    .............................. 6 . The powers of one who has destroyed the dsavas 261

    VIII THE SEVEN SETS EXPANDED ..................................................................... 1 . In the four NikByas 264

    .................................................... 2 . In the rest of Buddhist literature 270

  • CONTENTS ix

    ............................................................................... 3 . Conclusions 279

    IX DHAMMAS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO AWAKENING 1 . The expression bodki-pakkkiyd dkammd in the canon ........................ 284 2 . Usage and application of the expression .......................................... 289 3 . The commentarial exegesis ........................................................... 298

    X THE SEVEN SETS IN THE ABHIDHAMMA 1 . The Visuddhimagga: the classic developed account ........................... 303 2 . The Patisambhiddmagga ............................................................. 307 3 . The Dhammasarigani .................................................................. 312 4 . The Vibhariga ............................................................................ 321 5 . Ordinary and transcendent bodki-pakkhiyd dhammci .......................... 332 6 . The bodk-pdksikd dharmdh according to the SarvBstivBda ........................ 335

  • LIST OF TABLES

    ............................................... 1 . The schema of the Samanamandikii-sutta 77 .............................................. 2 . Persons according to strength of indriyas 127

    ............................................................... 3 . Bojjhaligas: characteristic. etc 161 .................................................... 4 . The use of the viveka-nissita formula 164

    5 . Food and not-food for the factors of awakening .................................. 176 ................................................ 6 . The seven sets expanded in the Nikliyas 265

    ............................. 7 . The seven sets expanded in the Patisambhidiimagga 271 ................... 8 . Samyutta/Samyukta tables of contents .. .................... 277