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Subtropical Cyclones. Diabatic Energy Sources. TCs. Subtropical cyclones. Frontal cyclones. Baroclinic Energy Sources. Adapted from Fig. 9 in Beven (2012) 30 th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology. Adapted Davis (2010) Methodology. Davis (2010) methodology: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PowerPoint Presentation

Subtropical Cyclones

DiabaticEnergy SourcesBaroclinicEnergy SourcesAdapted from Fig. 9 in Beven (2012)30th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology

TCsSubtropical cyclones

Frontal cyclonesSay wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression1

Davis (2010) methodology:Based on Ertel potential vorticity (PV)Formulated in terms of two PV metrics that quantify the relative contributions of baroclinic processes and condensation heating to the evolution of individual cyclones

Davis (2010) methodology is similar to Hart (2003) cyclone phase space diagrams

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologySay wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression2

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyLower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

absolute vorticity425 hPa

Potential temperature anomaly Length of 6 box centered on cycloneSay wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression3

Adapted Davis (2010) Methodology PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

Midtroposphericlatent heat release:(interior PV anomaly)

425 hPa

Ertel PV anomaly Potential temperature anomaly

Length of 6 box centered on cycloneabsolute vorticitySay wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression4

Adapted Davis (2010) Methodology200 hPa925 hPaSay wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression5

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyLower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression6

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyLower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

Midtroposphericlatent heat release:(interior PV anomaly)Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression7500 hPa

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyMidtroposphericlatent heat release (PV2)Lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

Midtroposphericlatent heat release:(interior PV anomaly) PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression8

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyAdditional metric introduced to diagnose upper-tropospheric dynamical processes

Upper-troposphericdynamical processes:(upper-tropospheric PV anomaly)

Ertel PV anomaly

300 hPa

Length of 6 box centered on cycloneSay wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression9500 hPa

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyMidtroposphericlatent heat release (PV2)Lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

Midtroposphericlatent heat release:(interior PV anomaly) PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression10500 hPa

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyMidtroposphericlatent heat release (PV2)Upper-troposphericdynamical processes(PV3)Lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

Midtroposphericlatent heat release:(interior PV anomaly)

Upper-troposphericdynamical processes:(upper-tropospheric PV anomaly) PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression11500 hPa

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyMidtroposphericlatent heat release (PV2)Upper-troposphericdynamical processes(PV3) PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Calculated from the 0.5 Climate ForecastSystem Reanalysis V2 dataset

Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression12

Hurricane Sandy: 6 6 box, NHC Best TrackPeaks in PV3PV1/PV222 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October

PVU

Hurricane Sandy: 10 10 box, NHC Best TrackPeaks in PV3PV1/PV2

PVU22 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October

Hurricane Sandy: 12 12 box, NHC Best TrackPeaks in PV3PV1/PV2

PVU22 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October

Hurricane Sandy: 14 14 box, NHC Best Track

PVUPV1/PV2Peaks in PV322 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October

Hurricane Sandy: 16 16 box, NHC Best Track

PVUPV1/PV2Peaks in PV322 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October

Hurricane Sandy: 18 18 box, NHC Best Track

PVUPV1/PV2Peaks in PV322 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October

Hurricane Sandy: 20 20 box, NHC Best Track

PVUPV1/PV2Peaks in PV322 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October500 hPa

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyMidtroposphericlatent heat release (PV2)Upper-troposphericdynamical processes(PV3)Lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

Midtroposphericlatent heat release:(interior PV anomaly)

Upper-troposphericdynamical processes:(upper-tropospheric PV anomaly) PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression20300 hPa

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyMidtroposphericlatent heat release (PV2)Upper-troposphericdynamical processes(PV3)Lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

Midtroposphericlatent heat release:(interior PV anomaly)

Upper-troposphericdynamical processes:(upper-tropospheric PV anomaly) PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression21

Hurricane Sandy: 6 6 box, 500 hPa, NHC Best TrackPeaks in PV322 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 October

PVUPV1/PV2

Peaks in PV322 October23 October24 October25 October26 October27 October28 October29 October30 October31 OctoberHurricane Sandy: 6 6 box, 300 hPa, NHC Best Track

PVUPV1/PV2300 hPa

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyMidtroposphericlatent heat release (PV2)Upper-troposphericdynamical processes(PV3)Lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes:(near-surface potentialtemperature anomaly)

Midtroposphericlatent heat release:(interior PV anomaly)

Upper-troposphericdynamical processes:(upper-tropospheric PV anomaly) PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression24500 hPa

Lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes (PV1)200 hPa925 hPa

Adapted Davis (2010) MethodologyMidtroposphericlatent heat release (PV2)Upper-troposphericdynamical processes(PV3) PV1/PV2 : measure of the contribution of lower-troposphericbaroclinic processes relative to the contribution of condensation heating

Calculated from the 0.5 Climate ForecastSystem Reanalysis V2 dataset

Say wind speed criteria for a subtropical storm but also then the wind speed for a subtropical depression25