strategies for clean air and bright sky in tainan joss paper and incense sticks during 2011 to 2018

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  • Yuan-Chung (Oliver) LIN Ph.D.

    Environmental Protection Bureau of Tainan City Government,

    Taiwan

    Strategies for Clean Air and

    Bright Sky in Tainan

  • Outlines

    02 Major Air Pollution Control Strategies

    04 Conclusion

    01

    03 The Results of Air Quality Improvement

    2

  • 3

    Where is Tainan City?

    Taiwan

    China

    Korea Japan

    Philippines

    Tainan

    Area:2,191 km2

    Population:1,880,000

  • 4

    PM10 -42.4%

    PM2.5 -23.2%

    -50%

    -40%

    -30%

    -20%

    -10%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

    Environmental Load

    Construction Site 27.3%

    Automobile 19.6%

    Diesel Vehicle 15.3%

    Factory 5.9%

    Population 0.7%

    Scooter -2%

  • 5

    Influence of Meteorology on Air Quality

    Vehicle Exhaust Pollution

    Traditional Activity and Agricultural

    Pollution

    Three Issues of Air Pollution

    01 03 02

    Meteorology and

    topographical factors lead

    to pollutant retention.

    • Total vehicles is 1.98

    million.

    • 1.05 vehicles per

    citizen.

    •Total temples are over 2000.

    •Joss paper and incense sticks

    burning.

    •Agricultural waste burning.

  • Influence of Meteorology on Air Quality

    6

    Stationary Zone

    Wake Effect Zone

  • 38.8 36.8 36.9

    28.6

    18.5

    10.6

    12.9 12.8

    19.8

    30.0

    33.2 34.0

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

    μ g

    /m 3

    7

    Topographical and Pollution ◢Northeast monsoon blows during fall to spring. ◢Located on the leeward side and the weak wind tail zone. ◢Pollutants are difficult to diffuse.

    PM2.5 Concentration

    Rainy Season & Blows Southwest Monsoon

    Tainan

  • 5.7%

    3.9%

    5.9%

    6.2%

    6.8%

    8.4%

    9.1%

    9.2%

    [值]

    [值]

    17.1%

    0% 10% 20%

    其他

    農…

    機 …

    汽車

    餐…

    農…

    車…

    營…

    裸…

    柴…

    工廠

    Source:TEDS 9.0(Base year: 2013)

    Primary PM2.5 Secondary PM2.5

    The Major PM2.5 Sources

    8

    Factory

    Diesel Vehicle

    Bare Surface

    Construction Site

    Road Dust

    Agricultural Operation

    Catering

    Automobile

    Scooter

    Agricultural Burning

    Other

    Diesel

    Vehicle,

    53%

    Other, 18%

    Chemical Material Manufacturing, 5%

    Energy Manufacturing, 5%

    Scooter,

    6%

    Automobile,

    13%

    Other, 34%

    Other Business, 6%

    Paper Products and Printing

    Manufacturing, 5%

    Chemical Material

    Manufacturing, 24%

    Textiles Mills,

    12%

    Food

    Manufacturing,

    10%

    Basic Iron and Steel Manufacturing, 9%

  • 9

    02 Major Air Pollution

    Control Strategies

  • 10

    Clear & Bright Sky Plan Tainan city started “Clear and Bright Sky – Particulate Matter

    Reduction Control Action Plan” in 2014.

    18 bureaus of Tainan city worked together to promote 9 strategies and 50 items in 2018.

    1.

    Road dust

    reduction

    2.

    Construction

    control

    3.

    Factory

    control

    4. Reduce

    emission of diesel vehicles

    9.

    Environmental

    education 8.

    Promote

    low-emission

    mobility

    7.

    Reduce

    Bare

    Surface

    5.

    Reduce

    emission

    of scooters

    6.

    Fugitive

    emission

    control

    2016 9 Strategies 42 Items

    2017 9 Strategies 45 Items

    2014 8 Strategies 25 Items

    2015 9 Strategies 37 Items

    2018 9 Strategies 50 Items

    2019 Rolling Review

  • 11

    Methods of Factory Control

    Factory Operating Permit Management

    Prevention of Pollutant

    Economic Incentive

    Fuel Control

    ◢Control Sources of Pollution-Use less toxic raw materials or fuels

    ◢Economic Incentives-Air Pollution Control Fees

    ◢Enhance Control Technology/Equipment

    -IBACT(Individual Best Available Control Technology ) -BARCT(Best Available Retrofit Control Technology)

    01

    02

    03

    04

  • 12

    Incentives for Emission Reduction

    ◢The aim is reducing the unhealth of air quality.

    ◢Reduction plan and incentives of reduction fall to spring.

    28.0

    12.1

    27.6

    36.5

    S p

    ri n

    g

    S u

    m m

    e r

    A u

    tu m

    n

    W in

    te r

    12

    PM2.5 Concentration

    μ g /m

    3

    F a

    ll

    .

    Summer Fall & Winter & Spring

    Em is

    si o

    n

    Reducing

    Air Pollution Fee

    0~50 51~100 101~150 151~200

    -20%

    AQI =

  • ◢The density of air quality monitoring device is 2.1 km2

    13

    Air Quality Monitoring Equipment

    12 Manual operation monitoring stations (Tainan EPB)

    13 Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems

    (Factories)

    4 Auto-monitoring stations in industrial zones

    (Southern Taiwan Science

    Park)

    220 Air boxes (Non-governmental)

    6 Auto-monitoring stations

    (4 EPA + 2 Tainan EPB)

    900 Air quality microsensors (Tainan EPB)

  • 14

    Vehicle Exhaust Background

    581,809

    1,302,538

    100,958

    ◢1.05 vehicles per person in Tainan.

    ◢Produced 17,338 tons of NOx emission and 1,622 tons of PM2.5 yearly.

  • 15

    Emission Controls on Scooter

  • 440,484

    307,192 280,397

    237,263

    173,993

    122,753

    90,912

    2012 2013 2014 2915 2016 2017 2018 16

    Decreasing Two-stroke Scooter and Increasing E-Scooter

    Two-stroke scooters were decreased

    by 350 thousand vehicles in 7 years.

    Electric scooters were increased more

    than 33,652 in 7 years.

    14,222 17,647

    21,253

    26,803

    33,073

    38,098

    47,874

    2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

    電 動 機 車 、 電 動 輔 助 車 輛 數

    N u

    m b

    e r

    o f T

    w o

    -s tr

    o k e S

    c o

    o te

    r

    N u m

    b e r

    o f E

    le c tr

    ic S

    c o o te

    r

  • 17

    Emission Controls on Diesel Vehicles

    Setting 14 Clean Air Zones-

    Where car needs a badge to

    enter

    All buses & official vehicles

    are inspected entirely

    2015 2016

    Subsidy for eliminating

    old vehicles

    2018

    2019

    Low Emission Zone- Restrict Vehicles Entry

  • 18

    E-Vehicles Schedule

    All buses and officials use electric

    vehicles All e-scooters All e-vehicles

  • 19

    Pollutants from Joss Paper

    Pollutants from Incense Sticks

    Pollutions from cultural activities

    Pollutants from Firecrackers

    Traditional Activity

    ◢Tainan has the most temples in Taiwan (more than 700 temple

    fairs every year).

  • 20

    Donating Money Instead of

    Purchasing Joss Paper

    585 1295

    2042 2896

    3943

    5362

    6877

    8291

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    10000

    2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

    14 Times

    Amount of Centralized Incineration (Tons)

    Emission Controls on Joss paper

    Incineration just for Joss Paper

    $[值] $[值] $[值]

    $[值]

    $[值]

    $[值]

    $[值]

    $[值]

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

    Amount of Donation (NTD)

    64 Times

    改成錢的意象 Transported 9,102 tons in the last eight years.

    Reducing 30 tons of TSP emission from burning

    joss paper and incense sticks during 2011 to 2018.

  • 21

    Agricultural Waste Solving waste pollution from agriculture ◢Producing 150 thousand tons of rice straw and 2,800 tons of waste

    shells every year.

    ◢After harvest, lots of waste will be produced and burned causing air pollution.

    Burning Waste Rice Straw Waste Water-caltrop Shells