species and cultivars of cacao

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Species and cultivars of cocoa

Species and cultivars of cacao

Presented by:Rajatiya Jignasa H.M.Sc.(Horti.) Fruit ScienceJAU, Junagadh

INTRODUCTIONBotanical Name: Theobroma cacao L.Family: sterculiaceaeOrigin: South AmericaChromosome No.: 2n=20 Synonyms : cocoa, chocolate tree

Cocoa tree is the source of one of the world's most delicious and familiar products... chocolate.

Theobroma comes from ancient Greek word and translates as Food of the Gods.

Cocoa plant is a small (4 to 8 m height) evergreen tree. In india, it is mainly cultivated in karnataka, kerala and tamilnadu mainly as intercrop with arecanut and coconut. Slowly the area under cultivation is being promoted by many chocolate producing companies as contract farming. In 2008, india produced approximately 8500 metric tonnes of cocoa.

The seeds of cocoa contain about 2 per cent of theobromine and 40 to 60 per cent of solid fat. The shells contain about 1 per cent of theobromine, together with mucilage, etc.

The family of cocoa contains 50 genera and 750 species of trees and shrubs, mostly tropical. T.cacao is the most important species producing cocoa. cola spp. are sometimes used for beverage purposes, but more usually as a masticatory in West Africa.

Except T. Cacao and T. Bicolor, most of the spp. Have restricted geographical distribution.About 15 spp. are utilized for their edible pulp and seeds.

Sweet pulp around the beans of T. Grandiflorum is used for making a drink in part of brazil and is also eaten.

T. cacaoT. grandiflora

Classification of cocoaCheeman (1944) classified the cultivated and wild coacoas into three groups based on morphological characteristics of pods, flowers or seeds.

1)Criollo - the rare

The Criollo tree is native to Central and South America as well as the Caribbean islands and Sri Lanka. Only 5% of the worlds production is Criollo.Criollos are particularly difficult to grow, as they are extremely suceptibleto a variety of environmental threats.

The beans have a white to pale pink colour and their taste is described as delicate yet complex, low in classic chocolate flavor, but rich in secondary notes of long duration. Consideredto be the prince of cocoas, Criollo is prized as an ingredient in the very finest of chocolates.

2)Forastero - the versatile

The most commonly grown cocoa is Forastero. It is most likely native to the Amazon basin.Today, Forastero is mainly grown in Africa, Ecuador and Brazil and accountsfor 80% of the worlds cocoa supply. It ismuch hardier and less susceptible to diseases. It has a much higher yield than the Criollo variety.

Forastero cocoa has purple-coloured beans and is mainly used to give chocolate its full-bodied flavor. Its bitter taste has a short duration and is unsupported by secondary flavors, which is why it is often blended with superior cocoas.There are many Forastero subspecies: Amelonado, Cundeamor andCalabacillo, to name but a few. Amelonado cocoa is the most extensively planted cocoa of all.

3)Trinitario - the hybridTrinitario is a natural hybrid biological class resulting from cross-pollination. Legend recounts that it first came into existence on the Island of Trinidad, after a hurricane nearly completely destroyed the local Criollo crops in 1727. Assuming all the trees were dead, the plantations were replanted with Forastero, but spontaneous hybrids appeared. Trinitario combines the best of the two other main varieties: the hardiness and highyield of Forastero and the refined taste of Criollo.

The quality of the cocoa varies between average and superior. It is the predominant fine flavor cocoa. Trinitario populations are usually variable in pod and bean characteristics because the parents have highly contrasting characters. They can now be found in all the countries where Criollo cocoa was once grown: Mexico, the Caribbean islands, Colombia, Venezuela, and in parts of Southeast Asia.

VARIETIES/CULTIVARS In cocoa, 321 germplasm collections including 281 exotic and 40 indigenous clones are being conserved under Arecanut and Coconut at CPCRI, Regional Station, Vittal, Karnataka.

1) NC-45/53 (VTLCC-1)Selection from Nigerian cloneEarly, heavy bearer, self and cross compatibleGreen(immature) to yellow (ripe) color podsPods (no/tree/year)- 75Pod weight(g)- 321, beans/pod-37, single dry bean weight (g) 1.05Average dry bean yield (kg/tree/year)- 2.5Yield kg/ha- 911Fat content(%)- 52.5Shelling % - 12Recommended area- areca & coconut garden of KN, Kerala % TN

2)Vittal Cocoa Selection 1(VTLCS-1)

Precocious, stable and high yielder both under arecanut and coconut with medium canopy, withstands biotic and abiotic stress.

Red to Orange pods: 54.5 / tree/ year

No.of beans/ pod: 42

Single dry bean wt: 1.13 g

Shelling: 11%, Fat- 52.1%,

Dry bean yield/ tree/ year: 2.52 kg/tree/year, 1700 kg/ha

3)Vittal Cocoa Selection 2(VTLCS-2)

Early, stable and high yielder both under arecanut and coconut, have bold and bigger beans, less incidence of pests and diseases.

Green to Yellow pods: 55 /tree/year

No. of beans/ pod: 42

Single dry bean wt: 1.21 g

Shelling: 15% Fat: 53%

Dry bean yield: 2.7 kg/ tree/ year, 1850 kg/ha

4)Vittal Cocoa Hybrid 1(VTLCH-1)

Vigorous, early and heavy bearer.

Green to yellow pods: 50/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 42.

Single dry bean weight: 1.00 g.

Shelling: 13%, Fat content: 53.6%.

Dry bean yield: 1.48 kg/tree/year, 1014 kg/ha.

5)Vittal Cocoa Hybrid 2(VTLCH-2)

Heavy bearer, medium canopy and tolerant to black pod rot.

Green to yellow pods: 70/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 40.

Single dry bean weight: 1.15 g.

Shelling: 11%, Fat content: 54%.

Dry bean yield: 1.15 kg/tree/year, 800 kg/ha.

6)Vittal Cocoa Hybrid 3(VTLCH-3)

Suitable for rainfed & irrigated areca and coconut gardens of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

Green to yellow pods: 45/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 43.

Single dry bean weight: 1.07 g.

Shelling: 13%, Fat content: 52.

Stomatal resistance (s/cm): 2.42.

Dry bean yield: 1.45 kg/tree/year, 993 kg/ha

7)Vittal Cocoa Hybrid 4(VTLCH-4)

Suitable for rainfed & irrigated areca and coconut gardens of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

Red to orange pods: 40/tree/year.

No. of beans/pod: 43.

Single dry bean weight: 1.01 g.

Shelling: 12%, Fat content: 53%.

Stomatal resistance (s/cm): 2.41.

Dry bean yield: 1.25 kg/tree/year, 856 kg/ha.

8) II-67 x NC-42/94Hybrid between Malaysian and Nigerian cloneEarly, heavy bearer, suitable for water limited conditionsRed (immature) to pink (ripe) color podsPods (no/tree/year)- 40Pod weight (g)- 429.5Beans/ pod- 43Single dry bean weight (g)- 1.01Average dry bean yield(kg/tree/year)- 1.25Yield kg/ha- 856Shelling % - 12Fat content(%)- 45.95Recommended for rainfed and irrigated areca, coconut gardens of KN, Kerala, TN, AP, MH & Goa

Other knowen varieties of cocoa1. Criollo(a) RIM 189 (MEX)-Rosario Izapa Mexico)(b) CAT 201 (ARA)-Cata Aragua State)(c) ICS 39,40, 45, 47 and 91-Imperial College Selections2. Forastero (a) AMAZ2/1,3/2(Amelonado)-Amazonas(b) APA-4(Amazonica Palmira)(c) SCA 6, 8, 9, 12(Scavina)-Resistance to Witches broom, SSV, VSDB and Black pod diseases of cocoa.(d) CCRP 1 to 10(Cadbury-KAU Co-operative Cocoa Research Project, KAU)

3. Trinitario(a) C 26, 37 to 49, 52(Cabruca, Brazil)(b) UF 1, 10, 168, 666, 667(United Fruit Comapany)(c)ICS 6, 8, 16, 43, 61, 95(Imperial College Selections)

Thank you...


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