SOILS Most important result of weathering and Erosion is soil Soils - soil science = PEDOLOGY Residual soil - soil made from local bedrock (weathered material)

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  • SOILS Most important result of weathering and Erosion is soil Soils - soil science = PEDOLOGY Residual soil - soil made from local bedrock (weathered material) Transport soil - soil that was moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity (weathered and eroded material)

  • SOIL Factors determining soil makeup1. Climate - Rainfall amount and temperature (most important)2. Parent Rock - Type and chemical composition3. Vegetation - Roots and Leaves4. Topography - hilliness, etc.5. Time - how long to develop

  • MATURE VS. IMMATURE SOILMature soil is soil that is fully developed! Has a distinguished A,B, and C horizon.Forest soil, Grassland soil, and Tropical SoilImmature soil is soil that is not fully developed! Does not have a distinguished A,B and C horizon. Ex. Desert soil, Arctic soil

  • PEDALFERS VS. PEDOCALS Pedalfers - Found in eastern half of U.S. where rainfall exceeds 25 inches/yeara. Ped - soil / Al - aluminum / Fe - ferrum - iron al from clay , fe from iron oxide2. Pedocals -

  • SOILS PROFILE Soil Profile - a cross reaction of soil down to the bedrock. Almost all soils show a profile of 3 distinct layers or zones (A,B,C)A. A (horizon) topsoil, gray or black, has humusB. B (horizon) subsoil, more clay is washed downC. C (horizon) Rock fragments and slightly weathered bedrockNote: More detailed description in your packet.

  • SOIL TYPES AND CLIMATE Soil types and climate1.Most important factor affecting soil is the climateA. Tropical soil - Warm and wet, speed up chemical weathering. Thus soil forms more quickly. Infertile due to leaching because of rain (high temp. and heavy rainfall). Note: 3 metersB. Grassland soil - enough rain for grass but not trees. Thick A horizon and very fertile. Note: 1 meterC. Forest soil - Humid regions with cool season. Well developed horizons. Less than 1 meter. Not very fertile.D. Arctic soils - High elevation and latitude. Very few layers, shallow. Permafrost.

  • SOIL CONSERVATIONB. SOIL CONSERVATION1. Soil Erosion - movement of topsoil by water and wind 4 bill tons (water), 1 bill tons (wind) = loss of topsoilREDUCE IT!!!!1. Windbreaks (level plains)2. Contour farming (plant parallel to land contours3. Terraces (flattened slopes)4. Strip cropping5. No till

  • RATES OF SOIL FORMATION Factors of Rates of Soil Formaiton1. The rocks themselves - Igneous and metamorphic most resistant, sedimentary least resistant because of pores.2. Surface Area3. Climate - Warm and wet = chemical weathering Cold and Dry = mechanical weathering4. Topography5. Biological Factors

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