Slum Eradication

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Executive SummaryThe slum is not only a manifestation of mismanaged urban planning, but the existence of slums worldwide is also a sign that the slum is a crucial element of contemporary urbanization. Without finding appropriate solutions to the housing problems of a majority of urban dwellers, public and private decision makers will not be able to meet the challenges of sustainable development. The extension of slums in developing countries is a product of 20th- and 21stcentury urban growth. Attempts have been made to eliminate slums but they have almost universally failed because they do not question the urban model that generates the slum in the first place. The urban environment is highly complex. In the past, public policies have aimed at eradicating slums, without taking into account the potential of their inhabitants to resolve the very problems that slums reputedly generate. Especially in the contemporary era of globalization, it is important to stress the resources that slums can offer the chaotic city. This requires a reassessment of views on urbanization. Sustainable urban development will only be possible if we concentrate on solving the problems of the majority of urban populations in ways that make use of their own creativity and involve them in decision-making.Slums are usually characterized by urban decay, high rates of poverty, and unemployment. They are commonly seen as "breeding grounds" for social problems such as crime, drug addiction, alcoholism, high rates of mental illness, and suicide. In many poor countries they exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care.

This paper tries to understand the existence of slums; challenges faced in eradication of slums, methodologies adopted and lessons from world cities. The paper also provides some recommendations for effective eradication of slums. The paper will focus mainly on Indian aspects.

Slum Eradication Assignment 2

Table of ContentsExecutive Summary .................................................................................................................................. 1 1. Introduction: .................................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. Definition of slums and their variants ......................................................................................... 3 Causes for the emergency of slums ............................................................................................. 3 Statistics ................................................................................................................................... 5 Undiscovered and Vacant market at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) .......................................... 8 Current Indian Context - Public Private Partnership or Center State Collaboration .................. 10 Biggest Challenges ................................................................................................................... 14 Main Obstacles ........................................................................................................................ 14 Issues faced from the slum dwellers side ................................................................................... 14

Economics of Slum Eradication .......................................................................................................... 8 2.1 2.2

3.

Issues faced from the government side ............................................................................................. 14 3.1 3.2 3.3

4. 5.

A Success Story ............................................................................................................................... 16 Experiments in slum eradication ...................................................................................................... 18 5.1 A credible low-income housing policy ....................................................................................... 18 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................... 21 References ...................................................................................................................................... 23

6. 7.

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Slum Eradication Assignment 2

1. Introduction:1.1 Definition of slums and their variantsSlum, as defined by the United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security. The term has traditionally referred to housing areas that were once relatively affluent but which deteriorated as the original dwellers moved on to newer and better parts of the city, but has come to include the vast informal settlements found in cities in the developing world. According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005. However, due to rising population, the number of slum dwellers is rising. One billion people worldwide live in slums and the figure will likely grow to 2 billion by 2030. Other terms that are often used interchangeably with "slum" include shanty town, skid row, barrio, and ghetto although each of these may have a somewhat different meaning. Slums are distinguished from shanty towns in that the latter initially are low-class settlements, whereas slums are generally constructed early on as relatively affluent or possibly prestigious communities.

1.2

Causes for the emergency of slumsSlums come about because of, and are perpetuated by, a number of forces. Among these are: Rapid rural-to-urban migration Increasing urban poverty and inequality Insecure tenure Globalization all contribute to the creation and continuation of slums In many developing countries, squatters or informal settlers form close to the majority of urban dwellers and thus live in poverty without civic amenities, because urban development policies have not kept up with urban growth.

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Slum Eradication Assignment 21. Rapid rural-urban migration: Since 1950, the proportion of people working in developing country agriculture has declined by 20 to 30%. The immigrant urban poor have largely moved from the countryside to the cities voluntarily, in order to exploit actual or perceived economic opportunities. Opportunities manifest in part, due to the growing urban informal sector which in many cities accounts for as much as 60% of employment. 2. Income-earning opportunities: Throughout Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and in selected countries elsewhere, millions of people move back and forth between urban and rural places to take advantage of income-earning opportunities a phenomenon known as circular migration. Temporary migrants can cause large swings in population size. In some cities of China, for instance, temporary migrants are estimated to count for between 1/5 and 1/3 of the total population. Circular migration is often tied to seasonal patterns or agricultural cycles. Very often temporary migrants do not have a place to live in and are forced to occupy illegal settlements. 3. Lack of finance to afford decent housing: Slums are mainly (not exclusively) a urban phenomenon. Unlike rural areas, in urban areas unlike rural areas, access to virtually all goods and services depends on having a cash income. Urban residents have to buy most of their food while rural residents grow a substantial portion of their own food and food prices often are higher in urban areas than in the countryside. As a consequence, low-income people have little or no money to rent houses. 4. Political migrants and refugees: People escaping political conflicts in the rural areas and smaller cities of such countries as Liberia and Mozambique have contributed to big-city growth rates exceeding 7% a year over long periods - a rate at which the population would double in just 10 years. This has often led to a rapid increase of informal settlements 5. Lack of ownership rights, or secure tenure: The lack of secure tenure is a primary reason why slums persist. Without secure tenure, slum-dwellers have few ways and little incentive to improve their surroundings. Secure tenure is often a precondition for access to other economic and social opportunities, including credit, public services,Page 4

Slum Eradication Assignment 2and livelihood opportunities. It is particularly difficult for the urban poor to obtain tenure because property registration processes are complicated and expensive. The process is even more difficult in the case of informal settlements. Many governments hesitate to legalize them for fear of encouraging more illegal settlements. Progressive decay in basic infrastructure such as piped water, electricity, sewerage, and roads have prompted people in large African cities like Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to move to unplanned settlements on the urban periphery where land is cheapest

1.3

StatisticsThe U.N.s Millennium Development Goals Report 2005 reported that urban population was projected to exceed rural population in developing regions by 2007 and was growing at more than 3 percent per year, three times faster than the population of rural areas. In 2005, slightly more than one-third of city dwellersalmost 1 billion people lived in slums - most of these were in the developing nations of the world. There is direct effect and influence on the emergency and increase in slums, by the rate of unemployment in a nation, and the average per capita income. More important is the number of individuals who live at below the $1 per day rate that is prescribed to define poverty worldwide. Sub-Saharan Africa hosts the largest proportion 71.9 per cent of