Second Census of Graduate Research Students in Chemistry

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<ul><li><p>July. 1925 ISDUSTRIAL d S D ESGISEERISG C'HEJIISTRY 755 </p><p>The president of the French Academy of Sciences, in a recent eulogy of Count Hilaire de Chardonnet, stated that no one was more firmly devoted to the academy and no one more attached to its traditions. His high ideals, his kindly manner, and his strong friendship were appreciated and re- spected by all who came in contact with him. His true title </p><p>to scientific glory is being the first to prepare and bring into production a new synthetic silk, </p><p>References l--Compf r e n d , 1,8, 97i (1924) 2-Rro. gen. collotdes, 2, 129 (19241. 3--Dyestufss, 25, 132 (1924) 4-"drtificial Silk" (pamphlet), du Pant Fibersilk Company. </p><p>Second Census of Graduate Research Students in Chemistry' </p><p>By James F. Norris </p><p>DIvIsrrm OF CHEMISTRY A N D CIm'.frcaL TECHNOLOGY O F THE K*TIOKAL RESEARCH Coc-scrr, WASHISOTON, D. C </p><p>HE results of the first census of graduate research students in chemistry,2 undertaken last year by the T Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of </p><p>the Sational Research Council, appeared to be of sufficient interest to warrant the repetition of the work this year. In addition to the reasons given by Dr. Zanetti for making such a detailed study of the research work carried out by candidateq for advanced degrees, the census will be of value in indicating to the officers of the Division the results of the efforts made to encourage and develop research in those fields to which the Division is giving particular attention. The activity of the Committee on Colloids during the last few years is reflected in the large number of researches in this division of chemistry. During the past year aliphatic chem- </p><p>1 Recrived May 22 , 1925. 2 Zanetti, THIS J O V R N U . , 16, 402 (1924, </p><p>htry, as exemplified in fundamental research in petroleum, has been emphasized. I t will be of interest to note the in- creased activity in this field as the result of the work of the recently formed Committee on the Chemistry of Petroleuni. The Division a t its last annual meeting voted to hare the next census taken in 1927. </p><p>In order to make comparison possible, following each nuin- her in the general account of the results the corresponding number for the 1924 census is given; 1924 figures are also given in Table 11. </p><p>In collecting the information this year cards were sent only to the institutions that responded last year, with the excep- tion of twelve institutions. Of these all but eleven replied. Twenty-four institutions m-hich reported student&gt; last year reported no students this year. </p><p>T a b l e I-Number of G r a d u a t e Research S t u d e n t s in Various Fields of Chemis t ry 1924 1925 1974 1925 1924 1925 </p><p>General and Physical 240 331 Analytical 71 44 Sutri t ion 48 76 </p><p>Catalysis 51 33 Organic (Aliphatic) 172 191 Industrial and Engineering 203 184 </p><p>Electro-organic IS 14 Pharmacological 30 20 hIetal!ography </p><p>Colloid 69 ( ( Metallurgical 3s 28 Food 35 49 Subatomic and Radio 20 27 Organic (Aromatic) 250 239 Agricultural 91 53 Electro-inorganic 38 42 Physiological 1T2 196 Bacteriological z Photo and Photography 24 19 Pharmaceutical 20 39 Inorganic 101 86 Sanitary 9 l e </p><p>STATE Alahama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado </p><p>Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Afontana </p><p>- __ __ -_ - , </p><p>561 630 t b 2 364 </p><p>Total numher of students reported . . , . . . . . . </p><p>T a b l e 11-Number of G r a d u a t e Research S t u d e n t s Repor ted by S t a t e s ------I 92,j---? </p><p>Rating Students 3 0 3 28 6 32 0 </p><p>6 120 14 26 10 60 32 0 </p><p>29 7 27 </p><p>22 14 </p><p>6 3? 203 16 20 </p><p>19 20 </p><p>5 125 17 2 :3 24 13 </p><p>11 43 3 180 9 66 </p><p>2Sa 6 32 0 12 37 32 0 </p><p>' 29 </p><p>7--. 1924----- Rating Student5 </p><p>23 11 31 3 32 e </p><p>4 11s 14 9 </p><p>34 0 24 10 30 4 30 4 32 1 </p><p>3 li5 14 26 </p><p>5 104 31 3 22 12 18 1s 24 10 12 39 2 189 </p><p>11 4 8 6a 94 </p><p>33 1 10 52 34 0 </p><p>2 </p><p>S T ~ T Z Sehraska h-evada h-ew Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New Tork h-orth Carolina Xorth Dakota O h i o Okiahorna Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Hawaii Porto Rico </p><p>7---1928--.- Rating Students </p><p>18 21 30 3 32 0 20 18 31 1 1 214 </p><p>15 2 d </p><p>118 24 13 25 9 </p><p>S ss 20 18 32 0 </p><p>27 i 13 30 30 3 30 3 23 14 16 24 26 8 </p><p>4 138 32 0 31 1 32 0 </p><p>2: 8 </p><p>21 1: </p><p>- - 3 i 7 369 1700 l i 6 3 </p><p>,---1924-------. Rating Students </p><p>l i 21 31 3 31 3 16 24 34 0 </p><p>1 200 21 14 31 3 </p><p>8 85 20 1.5 </p><p>8 87 </p><p>29 7 27 </p><p>15 25 25 9 32 2 19 16 13 31 31 3 </p><p>4 118 34 0 32 2 34 0 </p><p>2: 28 f </p><p>27 $ </p><p>Total . . . , . . , 1763 a One large university that reported last year failed to report this year. </p><p>1 io0 </p></li><li><p>756 I S D USTRIAL A N D EYGINEERISG CHEMISTRY ~01. 17, NO. 7 </p><p>The number of universities, colleges, and schools of engi- neering and agriculture furnishing data was 121 (139); the number of medical schools was 24 (32) , and the number of schools of pharmacy was 10 (13). </p><p>The total number of graduate research students in chemis- try reported was 1763 (1700) distributed in various fields, as shown in Table I. Of these, 970 (563), or 55 (52) per cent, were reported by 13 (12) universities and colleges, including all their departments; 1234 (1193), or 69 (70) per cent, were reported by 25 (25) universities and colleges; 1412 (1357), or 80 (80) per cent, were reported by 40 (40) unirersi- ties and colleges. </p><p>In the group of 13 (12) universities and colleges which re- ported 55 (52) per cent of the total number, the highest number reported by any individual institution was 137 (122), followed by 101 (115) for the next competitor; the third and </p><p>fourth reported 99 (93) and 89 (91), respectively. The lowest number of research students reported by any one institution in that group was 51 (47). </p><p>The distribution of these 1763 (1700) students among the various fields of research is of interest. The physicochemical group (general, colloid, catalysis, subatomic, electrochemistry, photochemistry) appears to attract more students than any other; 544 (460) research students are working in this group. Organic chemistry comes next with 430 (420) research stu- dents. It is interesting to note that 44 (41) per cent of these are working in the aliphatic series. The medical group (physiological, pharmacological, pharmaceutical, nutrition, and bacteriological) is unexpectedly large, 333 (276) research students being a t work in those fields. Industrial and engi- neering chemistry comes fourth with 184 (203) research stu- dents, and inorganic chemistry fifth with 86 (101) workers. </p><p>Recommended Specifications for Analytical Reagent Chemicals </p><p>Hydrochloric, Nitric, Oxalic, and Sulfuric Acids, Ammonium Hydroxide, Ammonium Oxalate, Ammonium Thiocyanate, Barium Chloride, Iodine, Potassium Dichromate, Potassium </p><p>Hydroxide, Silver Nitrate, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Oxalate </p><p>By W. D. Collins, H. V. Farr, Joseph Rosin, G . C. Spencer, and Edward Wichers </p><p>COMMITTEE ON GUARANTEED REAGENTS, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIGTY </p><p>HE specifications given below are intended to Serve for re- </p><p>tests are based On published work and On the experience Of members of the committee and others in the examination Of reagent chemicals on the market. Suggestions for improvement of the specifications will be welcomed by the committee. </p><p> some^ like the strength of acids, are absolute requirements, regardless Of the method of testing; others are merely that the chemical shall pass the test given, and the suggested limit may show only approximately the quantity of the impurity in question. </p><p>In all the directions the acids and ammonium hydroxide re- </p><p>Solutions of the sample must be filtered for tests in which insoluble material </p><p>agents to be used in careful analytical work. The limits and w o u l ~ $ : ~ ~ ~ ~ - x r i n the material in origrinal container, pour cc, into a test tube (I50 mm. by 20 mm.), and compare with distilled water in a simi- lar tube. The liquids should be equally clear and free from suspended mat- ter and on looking across the columns by transmitted light there should be no apparent difference in color between the two liquids. </p><p>Assay-Tare a small glass-stoppered Erlenmeyer Bask containing 15 cc. of water. Quickly introduce about 3cc. of the acid, stopper, and weigh. </p><p>Nonaolafile Matter-Evaporate S5 cc. of the acid to dryness in platinum afteraddition of a drop of sulfuric acid, ignite at cherry redness for 5 minutes, cool, and weigh. </p><p>Sulfale-Add 0.01 gram of sodium carbonate to 20 cc. of the acid, evaporate to dryness, take up with water, filter, and make up t o a volume </p><p>T The requirements IJecified are Of tvo kinds </p><p>Titrate with standard sodium hydroxide solution. </p><p>The residue should not weigh more than 0.0005 gram. </p><p>ferred to are of full strength unless dilution is specified; water means distilled water of a grade suitable for the test described. A time of 5 minutes is to be allowed for the appearance of precipi- tates and before observation of color reactions, unless some other time is specified. </p><p>Specifications for sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, and for ammonium hydroxide published by the Committee on Guaranteed Reagents and Standard Apparatus in 1921, have been only slightly modified for the present report. </p><p>Acid, Hydrochloric REQUIREMENTS </p><p>AppeavanceColorless and free from suspended matter or sediment. Strenglh-Not less than 35 per cent by weight of HCI. Nonwolafile Matter-Not more than 0.0005 per cent. Sulfafe (Sod)-Not more than 0.0002 per cent. Free Chlorine (C1)-To pass test (limit about 0.0002 per cent). S u l j f e (S0a)-Not more than 0.003 per cent. Arsenic (As)-Not more than 0.00001 per cent. Iron (Fe)-Not more than 0.0001 per cent. Heasy M e f a l s T o pass test (limit about 0.0005 per cent leadJ. </p><p>Blank tesls must be made on water and all reagents used in the methods unless the directions provide for elimination of errors due to impurities. </p><p>1 Presented in connection with the report of the Committee on Guaran- teed Reagents at the 69th Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Baltimore, Md., April 6 to 10, 1925. </p><p>TESTS </p><p>of 10 cc. in a test tube. Add 1 CC. of hydrochloric acid (1 volume strong acid in 20) and 1 cc. of 10 per cent barium chloride solution. The turbidity after 10 minutes should not be greater than is obtained in an equal volume of distilled water containing 0.01 gram sodium carbonate neutralized with hy- drochloric acid, 0.05 mg. of sulfate (SO4), and the quantities of hydrochloric acid and barium chloride used with the sample. </p><p>Free ChlovineTo 25 cc. of the sample add 25 cc. of freshly boiled water and cool; add 2 drops of 2 per cent potassium iodide solution and 1 cc. of car- bon disulfide, and mix. The carbon disulfide should not acquire a pink color in half a minute. </p><p>Su&amp;e--Add 0.05 cc. of 0.1 Niodine solution and a few drops of starch so- lution to 50 cc. of water, and then add 5 cc. of the sample previously diluted with 50 cc. of water. The mixture should retain a blue color after mixing. </p><p>Arsenic-Determine in 20 cc. of the sample by the Gutzeit or the 3Iarsh-Berzelius method. Special care in making blank tests is necessary in this determination. </p><p>Iron-To 85 cc. of the sample add about 0.05 gram potassium nitrate and evaporate t o a volume of about 2 cc. Wash into a color comparison tube, add 2 cc. of 5 per cent ammonium thiocyanate solution, and stir well. Compare with a solution of the same volume containing 1 cc. of hydrochloric acid and the quantities of potassium nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate used in the test, to which standard ferric chloride solution is carefully added from a buret until the tints match. </p><p>Heavy Melals-Evaporate 10 cc. of the acid to dryness, add 5 drops of hydrochloric acid, dilute to 50 cc., and saturate with hydrogen sulfide. No color should be observed. </p><p>The potassium iodide should be free from iodate. </p><p>Acid, Nitric REQVIREMENTS </p><p>Appearance-Colorless and free from suspended matter or sediment. Strenglh-From 6s to 70 per cent by weight of HXO8. </p></li></ul>