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Russian Navy 1
Voyenno-orskoy Flot Rossiyskoy
Emblem of the Russian Navy
Active January 17th, 1992 present(current form)
Branch Russian Armed ForcesType Navy
Size 133,000 (Including Marines, in2005)List of current Russian Navy ships
Garrison/HQ Admiralty building, Saint Petersburg
Anniversaries Navy Day (last Sunday in July)Submariner's Day (19 March)
Engagements As Russian Navy: First Chechen war Second Chechen War Georgia-Russia War Anti Piracy operation in Somalia Crimean Crisis (2014)
CommandersAdmiral Viktor Chirkov
Navies of Russia
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Imperial RussiaNavy (16961917)
Soviet Navy (19181991)
Russian FederationRussian Navy (1991Present)
The Russian Navy (Russian: - ( ), tr. Voyenno-morskoyFlot Rossiyskoy Federatsii (VMF Rossii), lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm ofthe Russian military. The present Russian Navy was formed in January 1992, succeeding the Navy of theCommonwealth of Independent States, which had itself succeeded the Soviet Navy following the dissolution of theSoviet Union in December 1991.The regular Russian Navy was established by Peter the Great (PeterI) in October 1696. Ascribed to PeterI is the oftquoted statement: "A ruler that has but an army has one hand, but he who has a navy has both." The symbols of theRussian Navy, the St. Andrew's flag and ensign (seen to the right), and most of its traditions were establishedpersonally by PeterI.Neither Jane's Fighting Ships nor the International Institute for Strategic Studies list any standard ship prefixs for thevessels of the Russian Navy. For official U.S. Navy photographs, they are sometimes referred to as "RFS" "Russian Federation Ship". However, the Russian Navy does not use this convention for itself.The Russian Navy possesses the vast majority of the former Soviet naval forces, and currently comprises theNorthern Fleet, the Russian Pacific Fleet, the Russian Black Sea Fleet, the Russian Baltic Fleet, the Russian CaspianFlotilla, Naval Aviation, and the coastal troops (consisting of the naval infantry and the coastal missile and artillerytroops).A recently approved rearmament program has placed the development of the navy on an equal footing with thestrategic nuclear forces for the first time in Soviet and Russian history. The program, covering the period until 2015,is expected to see the replacement of 45 percent of the inventory of the Russian Navy. Out of 4.9 trillion rubles($192.16 billion) allocated for military rearmament, 25 percent will go into building new ships. "We are alreadybuilding practically as many ships as we did in Soviet times," First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said duringa visit to Severodvinsk in July 2007, "The problem now is not lack of money, but how to optimize production so thatthe navy can get new ships three, not five, years after laying them down."
The Russian Navy suffered severely since the dissolution of the Soviet Union due to insufficient maintenance, lackof funding and subsequent effects on the training of personnel and timely replacement of equipment. Anothersetback is attributed to Russia's domestic shipbuilding industry which is reported to have been in decline as to theircapabilities of constructing contemporary hardware efficiently. Some analysts even say that because of this Russia'snaval capabilities have been facing a slow but certain "irreversible collapse". Some analysts say that the recentrise in gas/oil prices have enabled a sort of 'Renaissance of the Russian Navy' due to increased available funds,which may allow Russia to begin 'developing the capacity to modernize.
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Armed Forces of theRussian Federation
Ministry of Defence
Russian Air Force Russian Ground Forces Russian Navy
Independent troops (rod)
Strategic Missile Troops Russian Aerospace Defence Forces Russian Airborne Troops
Naval Infantry Naval Aviation Missiles and Artillery Agency Railway Troops
Ranks of the Russian Military
Air Force ranks and insignia Army ranks and insignia Navy ranks and insignia
History of the Russian military
Military history of Russia History of Russian military ranks Military ranks of the Soviet Union
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v t e 
Flag of the Commander-in-Chief,Russian Navy.
The origins of the Russian navy may be traced to the period between the 4thand the 6th century. The first Slavic flotillas consisted of small sailing shipsand rowboats, which had been seaworthy and able to navigate in riverbeds.During the 9th through 12th centuries, there were flotillas in the Kievan Rus'consisting of hundreds of vessels with one, two, or three masts. The citizensof Novgorod are known to have conducted military campaigns in the BalticSea (e.g., the siege of Sigtuna in 1187) - although contemporary Scandinaviansources state that the fleet was from Karelia or Estonia. Lad'ya ( inRussian, or sea boat) was a typical boat used by the army of Novgorod(length 30 meters with a width of five to six meters, and two or three masts,with the armament of battering rams and catapults, complement: 50 to 60men). There were also smaller sailboats and rowboats, such as ushkuys
() for sailing in rivers, lakes and skerries, kochis (), and nosads (), used for cargo transportation.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Cossacks conducted military campaigns against the Crimean Khanate andOttoman Empire, using sailboats and rowboats. The Don Cossacks called them strugs (). These boats werecapable of transporting up to 80 men. The Cossack flotillas numbered 80 to 100 boats. The centralized Russian statehad been fighting for its own access to the Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Azov since the 17th Century. By the endof that century, the Russians had accumulated some valuable experience in using riverboats together with landforces.Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich, the construction of the first three-masted ship to be built entirely within Russiawas finished in 1636. She was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein with a European design. Shewas christened the Frederick. In 1667-69, the Russians tried to build naval ships in a village of Dedinovo on theshores of the Oka River for the purpose of defending the trade routes along the Volga River, which led to theCaspian Sea. In 1668, they built a 26-gun ship, the Oryol (, or "eagle"), a yacht, a boat with a mast andbowsprit, and a few rowboats.During much of the seventeenth century Russian merchants and Cossacks, using koch boats, sailed across the WhiteSea, exploring the rivers Lena, Kolyma and Indigirka, and founding settlements in the region of the upper Amur.Unquestionably the most celebrated Russian explorer was Semyon Dezhnev, who, in 1648, sailed the entire length ofpresent-day Russia along the Arctic coast. Rounding the Chukotsk Peninsula, Dezhnev passed through the BeringSea and sailed into the Pacific Ocean.
Imperial Russian NavyMain article: Imperial Russian NavyThe regular Russian Navy was created at the initiative of Peter the Great. During the Second Azov campaign of 1696 against Ottoman Empire, the Russians employed for the first time 2 warships, 4 fireships, 23 galleys and 1300 strugs, built on the Voronezh River. After the Azov fortress was taken, at PeterI's request the Boyar Duma understood the vital importance of a navy for successful warfare and passed a decree on commencing the construction of a regular navy on 20 October 1696. This date is considered the official birthday of the regular Russian Navy. Early on in his reign, Peter made a tour to western Europe, England, and Holland. In Holland, he became acquainted with the work of the mathematicians Hans Gouda, Dirk Raven, and Hans Isbrandtsen Hoogzaat, which sparked his enthusiasm for the value of mathematics. A major result of this tour was the hiring of large numbers of foreign specialists of various expertise, including mathematicians. Among those hired was Henry (or Harry) Farquharson,
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called in Russia Andrei Danilovich (Daniloff) Farkhvarson or Farvarson (16751739), who had taught mathematicsand astronomy at the University of Aberdeen and was recommended by Halley and Jacob Daniel Bruce(16701735), while John Colson was hired to teach Bruce mathematics. Farquaharsons task in Russia was to createand administer a School of Mathematics and Navigation. It was under Farquharsons guidance that he and Tsar Peterwrote the mathematics curriculum for the new school. He was accompanied by Stephen Gwyn (16841720) andRichard Grice (1682?1709), who were graduates of the Englands Royal Mathematical School.Wikipedia:Citationneeded In 1700 at Voronezh the first major ships launched for the fledgling Russian Navy - for use with the AzovFleet were the 58-gun Goto Predestinatsiya (God's Providence), the 80-gun Staryy Orel (Old Eagle), and the70-gun Staryy Dub (Old Oak).
Eugene Lanceray. Fleet of Peter the Great (1709).
During the Great Northern War of 1700-1721, theRussians built the Baltic Fleet and the city of St.Petersburg. In 1703-1723, the main base of theBaltic Fleet was located in St. Petersburg and thenin Kronshtadt. Other bases were later establishedin Vyborg, Helsingfors, Revel (now Tallinn) andbo. At first, Vladimirskiy Prikaz was in chargeof shipbuilding. Later on, these functions weretransferred to the Russian Admiralty.
Basic principles of the Russian Navy, itseducational and training methods, as well asmethods for conducting military action were allsummarized in the Naval Regulations  (1720). Peter the Great, Feodor Apra