road to revolution

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Chapter Two Notes (Part I)

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  • 1. The Road to Revolution

2. Our Political Beginnings American colonists believed that govtshould be: Ordered --> organized into offices Limited --> it was NOT all-powerful Representative --> govt was to serve thepeoples interests, not its own 3. Where Our Govt IdeasCame From Magna Carta (1215) - first document thatofficially limited the power of the English king Basically said that the king did not have unlimitedpower The Petition of Right (1628) - further limitedthe kings power couldnt throw people in prison without a trial couldnt use the military to rule people in times ofpeace 4. The English Bill of Rights(1689) Said: Parliament was in control of taxing, not theking People couldnt be punished for asking theking to fix problems No cruel and unusual punishment Everyone got a fair trial 5. The Colonies (1607-1733) 13 English colonies were established inAmerica for religious freedom commercial trading/farming/fishing New home for debtors All colonies were started with a charter -written permission from the king 6. Types of Colonies Royal Colony- under the direct control of theking King named a royal governor to rule thecolony Had a bicameral legislature bicameral = two houses legislature = group of representatives that makelaws 7. Proprietary Colony - king gives land to aproprietor (overseer/owner), who organizedthe colony colony was directly controlled by the proprietor,not the king (still reported to him) One colony had a unicameral (one-house)legislature 8. Charter Colony - based on chartersgiven straight to the colonists Mostly governed themselves Officials were elected by the people, notthe king or proprietor 9. Group Work Imagine you are citizens under King JohnJohn XXXXVII. Create a Bill of Rights listing all thefreedoms you wish to have as the kingssubject (List at least ten) What freedoms do you value? What rights shouldall people have? Make your list REALISTIC, as if the king weregoing to read it. 10. British Colonial Policies Britain was in serious debt after theFrench and Indian War Decided that the colonies should help payit The colonies had not been taxed and hadbeen left alone for several years 11. Problems With Britain Taxation Without Representation -->American colonists were not given a voice inParliament saw themselves as British subjects and believedrepresentation was a right of all Englishmen Colonist believed Parliament had no right to taxthem Taxes: Stamp Act - tax on paper goods and documents Other taxes laid on imports like tea, paper, andglass 12. Great Britain also: Housed troops in peoples homes Left troops to monitor cities Cracked down on smuggling and enforcedstrict trade rules (colonies could only tradewith Britain) Took power from local colonial govts 13. Response of theColonists To avoid paying taxes, they wouldsmuggle (sneak) other goods in They boycotted (to protest by notbuying something) British goods untilParliament lifted taxes Protested, petitioned theKing/Parliament, and destroyed Britishproperty 14. The Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 - A mob of Boston colonistsharassed British troops stationed in the city,and shots were fired in the chaos, leaving 5people dead Used as propaganda against the British andto encourage rebellion 15. The Boston Tea Party(1773) British tea ships blockBoston Harbor until thecolonists bought theirtea 116 colonists dress upas Indians and throwboxes of tea into theBoston Harbor Then Britain shut downBostons port until theycould pay back thedamage