research in advt & prx

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  • 1

    Name of Institution

    Amity School of Communication BJMC- 3, Semester 6

    Applied Research Techniques

    Manu Sharma

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    Name of Institution

    Research in Advertising

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    Name of InstitutionBackground

    Applied by nature (most of the time). Ques that can be answered- color of

    packaging ?, is a magazine 1 a better advt. buy that magazine 2?,

    Methods involved-laboratory research, survey, field study, focus groups, content analysis.

    Requires competence in market research.

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    Name of InstitutionTypes advertising research

    Copy research Media research Campaign assessment


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    Name of InstitutionCopy testing

    Every element in AD (layout, narration, music, illustration, size, length) is a variable in copy testing.

    Message research is a less frequently used synonym.

    Its a research that helps develop effective advertisements and then determines which of several ads is most effective.

    It takes place at every stage of advertising process.

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    Name of Institution

    Before a campaign starts, copy pretesting indicates what to stress and what to avoid.

    Once the content has been established, tests are performed to ascertain the most effective way to structure ideas.

    Pictures, layout and copy can be tested by analyzing their different angles, typefaces being used or its readability.

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    For TV ad rough cut of the ad can be shown to respondents.

    Final phase- final ad shown to respondents to know that whether the ad serves the purpose or not and to make necessary changes.

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    Copy testing checks following variables- cognitive dimension (attention, exposure,

    awareness, comprehension, recognition, recall),

    Affective dimension (attitude change, involvement, liking/ disliking),

    Conative dimension (intention to buy, purchase Behaviour).

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    Name of Institution

    For cognitive dimension-a group of 5-100 consumers are shown tests ads and asked which ad is best. Physiological measurements technique-eye tracking study can be used (thro camera recording path of eye movement is scanned).

    T-scope: Its a test to determine how long it takes a consumer to recognize the product, headline or the brand name, by playing them on a slide projector with adjustable levels of illumination.

    For cognitive dimension

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    Name of Institution

    In print media-reader traffic score: subjects are shown a copy of newspaper or magazine and are asked which advertisements they remember seeing or reading in that newspaper and the answers are tabulated. its a biased approach and may confuse them.

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    Name of Institution

    Recall study and aided recall (respondents are shown a list of advertisers whose ads appeared in the publications).

    Unaided recall: unstructured ques are asked abt. advertising in general.

    Tele test service: measure the % of respondents who remember seeing commercial & % of those who can remember specific points.

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    Name of Institution

    Affective dimension: measure the change in attitude of consumer due to exposure to an ad. Techniques are:

    1. Projective tests (direct ques), 2. Theater test (shown TV ads & rate them-

    though require respondents to make too many responses),

    3. Physiological measures, (requires consumer attitude before exposure to ad, expose consumer to ads under examination re-measure the attitude after

    Affective dimension

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    Name of Institution

    exposure) and rating scales.Semantic Differential Scale: It is used to measure the meaning an item has for an individual. A seven point scale is anchored by bipolar attitudes.

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    Name of Institution

    4. Forced exposure method- filling questionnaire followed by screening of TV programme with ads in it. Then respondents are again asked to fill in the questionnaires.

    Conative Dimension: direct ques abt. Shopping activities and at post testing stage the sales figures & direct response abt. Product/ services and ads.

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    Name of InstitutionMedia Research

    Reach & frequency. Avg frequency= total exposures for all

    households/ Reach. GRP= Reach * Avg frequency. Circulation, TRPs, CPMs. Internet audience. Measuring effectiveness of internet

    advertising. Competitors activities.

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    Techniques: Aided recall, unaided recall, recognition method (showing respondents logo or cover of publication, then asked to recognize the ads, to cross check dummy articles and ads are inserted).

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    Polychronic behavior: Audience who involve in two or more activities, such as TV viewing and reading.

    Monochronic behavior: people who dont involve in two or more activities.

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    Name of Institution

    Campaign assessment research

    One or all stages of a campaign. Pre test and post test method: personal

    interviews, telephone interviews. Tracking studies.

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    Name of Institution

    Research in public relations

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    Name of InstitutionTypes

    Applied: strategic and evaluation research. Basic research Introspective research (basic & applied).

  • 21

    Name of InstitutionResearch In PR process

    Defining PR problems Planning PR programs Implementing PR programs thro actions &

    communication Evaluating program

  • 22

    Name of InstitutionDefining PR problems

    Environmental monitoring programs or boundary scanning (to know trends in public opinion & social events that can have an impact on org.),

    PR audits (comprehensive study of PR position of an org.),

    communication audits (internal and external comm. Used by org. rather than PR image of whole org.),

    social audits (measure org. social performance).

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    Name of Institution

    Environmental monitoring programs: 1. Early Warning phase: an attempt to

    identify emerging issues, done through a systematic content analysis or panel studies of community leaders that looks in for trigger events (that might focus public concern on issue/ topic).

    2. Tracking public opinion on major issues: panel study, interviews, surveys, polling techniques.

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    PR audits: they measure companys standing both internally (employee perception) and externally (opinions of customers, stockholder, community leaders).

    communication audits: tech use for the purpose are readership surveys and readability surveys.

    Social audits: to judge CSR & philanthropy.

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    Name of InstitutionPlanning PR programs

    It should address specific problems and opportunities.Ex: among investors goal can be to increase stock purchases!, how company is perceived?, how to make measurable goals?Methods- surveys, focus groups, intensive interviews, media audits (survey of reporters, editors, and other media personnel that asks about their preferences for stories & how they perceive the PR agency clients).

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    Name of InstitutionImplementing PR programs

    During the implementation phase, the monitoring efforts include- gate keeping research and output analysis.

    1. Gate keeping research-analysis of characteristics of press releases and video news releases that allows them to pass thro gate and appear in mass medium. Content and style variable are analyzed.Ex: what kind of news releases more favorable, what kind of artwork is preferred by local newspapers, to what extent the editing is done , of the sent PR releases, do media people run complete VNR or just the visuals and a bit of story.

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    2. Output Analysis- Its a short term or immediate results of a particular PR program activity. It measures how well a company presents itself to others, amount of attention an org. receives.

    Techniques-measure the coverage gained by Org. in a selected media, content analysis (on websites, in chat rooms, newspapers, electronic media), analyze attendance at special events and trade shows, etc.

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    Name of InstitutionEvaluation research

    1. Implementation checking.- Are intended T.A. being reached?

    2. In-progress monitoring- Is program having its intended effects?

    3. Program results are assessed and necessary changes are made for future.

  • 29

    Name of InstitutionLongitudinal research

    longitudinal research refers to the analysis of data collected at different points of time. Three different types of longitudinal research methods -- trend, cohort, and panel studies

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    Name of InstitutionPanel studies It measure the same sample of respondents at

    different points in time. Panel studies can reveal shifting attitudes and patterns of behavior that might go unnoticed with other research approaches. Depending on the purpose of the study, researchers can use either a continuous panel, consisting of members who report specific attitudes or behavior patterns on a regular basis, or an interval panel, whose members agree to complete a certain number of measurement instruments only when the information is needed. They enable researcher to predict cause-effect relationships.

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    Name of InstitutionTrend & Cohort studies

    The trend study is probably the most common longitudinal study among others. A trend study samples different groups of people at different points in time fro