Republic of South Sudan

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Republic of South Sudan. The Road to Independence. By Bichar J. Chom. 1899-1955 - South Sudan is part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, under joint British-Egyptian rule. 1956 - Sudan gains independence from joint British-Egyptian rule. A chronology of key events. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Republic of South Sudan The Road to Independence </p></li><li><p> A chronology of key events1899-1955- South Sudan is part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, under joint British-Egyptian rule.1956- Sudan gains independence from joint British-Egyptian rule </p></li><li><p> Sudan As Sudan prepared to gain independence from joint British and Egyptian rule in 1956</p></li><li><p> Immediately southern leaders accused the new authorities in Khartoum of backing out of promises to create a federal system, and of trying to impose an Islamic and Arabic identity</p></li><li><p> First civil warIn 1955, southern army officers mutinied, sparking off a civil war between the south, led by Joseph Logo the Anya Nya guerrilla movement, and the Sudanese government </p></li><li><p>1969- Group of socialist and communist Sudanese military officers led by Col Jaafar Muhammad Numeiri seizes power; Col Numeiri outlines policy of autonomy for south.1972- Government of Sudanese President Jaafar Numeiri concedes a measure of autonomy for southern Sudan in a peace agreement signed in Addis Ababa.1978- Oil discovered in Unity State in southern Sudan </p></li><li><p>The conflict only ended when the Addis Ababa peace agreement of 1972 accorded the south a measure of autonomy.But, in 1983, the south, led by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and its armed wing, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), again rose in rebellion when the Sudanese government cancelled the autonomy arrangements </p></li><li><p> The Conflict in Sudan At least 1.5 million people are thought to have lost their lives and more than four million were displaced in the ensuing 22 years of guerrilla warfare. Large numbers of South Sudanese fled the fighting, either to the north or to neighbouring countries, where many remain.The conflict finally ended with the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, under which the south was granted regional autonomy along with guaranteed representation in a national power-sharing government.</p></li><li><p>Second civil war1983- Fighting breaks out again between north and south Sudan, under leadership of John Garang's Sudanese People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), after Sudanese President Jaafar Numeiri abolishes South Sudan's autonomy.1988- Democratic Unionist Party - part of Sudan's ruling coalition government - drafts cease-fire agreement with the SPLM, but it is not implemented.1989- Military seizes power in Sudan </p></li><li><p>And in 1997 Dr Riek machar </p></li><li><p>Those Who Participate In SPLA/M</p></li><li><p>2001- Sudanese Islamist leader Hassan Al-Turabi's party, the Popular National Congress, signs memorandum of understanding with the southern rebel SPLM's armed wing, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). Mr Al-Turabi is arrested the next day.</p></li><li><p>2002- SPLA and Sudanese sign agreement on six-month renewable cease-fire in central Nuba Mountains - a key rebel stronghold.Talks in Kenya lead to a breakthrough agreement between southern rebels and Sudanese government on ending the civil war. The Machakos Protocol provides for the south to seek self-determination after six years </p></li><li><p>North-south peace deal2005January - North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ends civil war; deal provides for a permanent ceasefire, autonomy for the south, a power-sharing government involving rebels in Khartoum and a south Sudanese referendum on independence in six years' time.2005July - Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice-president. A new Sudanese constitution which gives the south a large degree of autonomy is signed </p></li><li><p> Tension over Abyei2008May - Intense fighting breaks out between northern and southern forces in disputed oil-rich town of Abyei.2008June - Southern Sudanese leader Salva Kiir and Sudanese President Omar Bashir agree to seek international arbitration to resolve dispute over Abyei. 2009July - North and south Sudan say they accept ruling by arbitration court in The Hague shrinking disputed Abyei region </p></li><li><p>2009December - Leaders of North and South reach deal on terms of referendum on independence due in South by 2011.2010January - President Omar Bashir says he will accept referendum result, even if South opted for independence.2011January - The people of South Sudan vote in favour of full independence from Sudan..</p></li><li><p>Southern Sudanese celebrate the formal announcement of independence referendum results in the southern capital of Juba </p></li><li><p> Again Sudan 2011May - North occupies disputed border region of Abyei.2011June - Governments of north and south Sudan sign accord to demilitarize the disputed Abyei region and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force</p></li><li><p>South Sudanese boys hold candles as the clock ticks over to midnight on July 9, 2011 to mark the day that South Sudan will officially declare independence from the north in Juba, </p></li><li><p>Ambassador Susan E. Rice &amp;UN chief Banki Moon Arrived In Juba </p></li><li><p> the IRC's Sophia Jones-Mwangi and Pasquale Ongwen joined a vast crowd </p></li><li><p> man waves South Sudan's national flag </p></li><li><p>Thousands celebrate the country's independence during a ceremony in the capital Juba on July 9, 2011. </p></li><li><p> Yambio </p></li><li><p>South Sudan President Salva Kiir lifts South Sudan's new constitution above the crowds </p></li><li><p>A man dances with fireworks during independence day celebrations </p></li><li><p>celebrating South Sudan's independence day </p></li><li><p> After Independent 14 July 2011 The General Assembly admitted the Republic of South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations, welcoming the newly independent country to the community of nations.</p></li><li><p>And joined the African Union on 28 July 2011</p></li><li><p> We are free and last </p></li><li><p> Next time Population:Capital: Area:Major languageMajor religions: Monetary unit: Main exportsEconomic GeographyInternational dialling code </p></li></ul>

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