Removing Limitations of Current Ethiopian Rural Land Policy and Land Administration Paper Presented at the Workshop on Land Policies and Legal Empowerment.

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  • Removing Limitations of Current Ethiopian Rural Land Policy and Land Administration Paper Presented at the Workshop on Land Policies and Legal Empowerment of the Poor, The World Bank, 2-3 November 2006, Washington DC Solomon Bekure, Abebe Mulatu, Gizachew Abebe, Michael Roth

  • ApproachSituational Assessment (Jan-Feb 2004)

    Ethiopia Land Policy and Administration Assessment (May 2004)

    Design Team (January to May 2005 Design Strengthening Ethiopia Land Tenure and Administration Program (LTAP) Contract Awarded for Design Proposal (November 2004)

    Ethiopia: Strengthening Land Tenure Policy and Administration Program (LTPAP)

  • LimitationsThe Derg (Military Regime)

    Abolished all customary land rights making all land the property of the state. Transfers were severely curtailed only to inheritance.

    Renting use rights of land and sharecropping were prohibited

    Rural Land Administration placed in the hands of Peasant Associations with Power to redistribute landsInheritance and frequent land redistribution frequently led to small land size holding and heightened tenure insecurity

  • Rural Land Policy under the EPRDF Regime (1991-2006) Same policy of state ownership enshrined in the the 1994 State Constitution. 1997 Rural Land Proclamation:

    Land can be leased and bequeathedLand rights cannot be sold or used as collateralPrivate property improvements can be sold or exchangedPower to administer land vested in the regional states

    Rural land laws imposed significant conditionalities on rental arrangements. Inheritance and land redistribution continued to undermine Tenure SecurityAny adult over the age of 18 is entitled to land free of charge for farming

  • Land Titling and Administration(Constraints)Parcels are not always given a unique ID number

    Current exercise is only recording rights for the present without anticipating future updating needs

    Errors committed due to inadequate adjudication by demarcation teams

    Subdivisions or exchanges are not being referenced to the original entry

    Land records are not being updated (Tigray)

    Records are not being safely stored for protection against fire, pest and climate

    Duplicate land records are not always being kept

    Highly scientific measurements are being used that while good for accuracy are slow and expensive

    Wide Regional Variations!!!

  • LTAPs ObjectiveAssist the Government of Ethiopia (GOE) with the design and implementation of a sound land certification system that provides robust and enforceable land tenure security in land and related natural resources in the four regional states of Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Tigray

  • Learning Model

    STRENGTHENED LEGAL

    FRAMEWORK

    LESSONS IMPLEMENTATION

    LEARNED

    IMPACT

    Ag Production

    Conflict

    NRM

    Investment

    FoodSecurity

    Strengthened Land Law and Land Administration

  • Ethiopia MapShaded area represents program supported regions where the LTAP will prioritize and focus its interventions

  • Technical Areas of Support

    Harmonization of Rural Land Laws

    Standardization of Rural Land Registration Procedures and Castral Surveying Methodologies

    Removing Limitations on Rural Land Policy

    Public Information and Awareness

    Rights Protection

    Commissioned Studies to Inform Policy

  • Comparison of Cost of rural cadastral surveying technologies

    No.MethodCost in Birr/haApplication1.Rope only13.00Most rural areas2.Rope & HH GPS centroid reading15.70Most rural areas3.Hand-Held (HH) GPS corners reading80.40Most rural areas4.Compass/Tape*291.80Inappropriate for all areas5. Total Station117.41High potential areas: - peri-urban, irrigation - resettlement, compensation; - commercial farming - investment purposes, etc.6.IKONOS high resolution satellite data**229.90Applicable for all areas if cost contained7.DGPS (not in EMA study)*High potential areas as in Total Station

  • Current Status?Progress with Legal Harmonization

    Also Progress with Standardization of Rural Land Administration

    However, broad stakeholder participation in decision making remains weak

    Land Policy at a National Level is off-limits

    Little progress yet made with issues of gender and land dispute resolution

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