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reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme

Disintegrated Planning: Exploring and Crossing the Natural and Built Environment Divide.

Alister Scott BA PhD MRTPI

Claudia Carter, Richard Coles, David Collier, Chris Crean, Rachel Curzon, Bob Forster, Nick Grayson, Andrew Hearle, David Jarvis, Miriam Kennet, Peter Larkham, Karen Leach, Mark Middleton, Nick Morton, Mark Reed, Hayley Pankhurst, Nicki Schiessel, Ben Stonyer, Ruth Waters and Keith Budden reluRural Economy andLand Use ProgrammeSlide 1

Taken images out as too clattered / busy background. This then also standardises the videos with none having a front image

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1. The lenses of spatial planning and the ecosystem approach

reluRural Economy andLand Use ProgrammeFirst, I will introduce the two contemporary lenses of spatial planning and the ecosystem approach which form the current building blocks for the built and natural environment Second, I locate these within the context of the artificial divide between the built and natural environment which in my view has led to disintegrated development.Third, I show how we have responded to this divide within our interdisciplinary research on the rural urban fringe. Specifically I will use three examples to suggest how we might navigate this divide.Finally, I consider the lessons for future biodiversity policy and practice

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1. The lenses of spatial planning and the ecosystem approach2. The disintegrated development of the built and natural environment

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme3

1. The lenses of spatial planning and the ecosystem approach3. Crossing the divide: framework, tools and applications2. The disintegrated development of the built and natural environment

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme4

1. The lenses of spatial planning and the ecosystem approach3. Crossing the divide: framework, tools and applications2. The disintegrated development of the built and natural environment4. Lessons for policy and practice

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme5The purpose.....To boldly goBeyond boundariesBeyond biodiversityBeyond planning Beyond the status quoBeyond OUR comfort zones

reluRural Economy andLand Use ProgrammeThe goal of this talk is therefore set within the rhetoric of the spatial explorer ...to 6The divide of built and natural environment, is particularly evident within the specialist focus on the urban or the rural. It is deeply engrained in academic disciplines and professional training paths. Interdisciplinarity is much talked about but yet few truly practice it or use it to structure research, degree courses or professional qualifications. So, not surprisingly, we end up with rural specialists and urban specialists. But this artificial separation is unhelpful and affects our understanding, research, policy and practice. In reality, there are so many interdependencies and linkages that ignoring one to focus on the other only makes partial sense and only provides partial answers.

Carter 2012 Building interdisciplinarity across the rural domainreluRural Economy andLand Use Programme7Connecting People-Place-Environment Dans cartoon please EA

reluRural Economy andLand Use ProgrammeAs a spatial planner viewing this scene I would first focus on the process of planning. Set within the communities and businesses that operate in particualr places the planner would elicit views on needs and issues of concern. This would be linked with other evidence bases from key agencies such as Natural England, Environment Agency, the local authority as well as new players on the scene such as the Local Enterprise Partnerships. Analysis of this evidence base together with other strategies for the area would shape a collective development plan for the area. Crucial to this process would be the early engagement of stakeholders in the plan process so that conflicting positions could be heard, articulated and managed.

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reluRural Economy andLand Use ProgrammeSecond Spatial planning practice take a policy-led approach within a philosophy that seeks to get the right development in the right place. This area forms part of the West Midlands Green Belt. So its role in preventing Birmingham merging with Alvechurch is paramount. The M42 passes through the area as a corridor of movement - part of the national and regional network of connections. Apart from a motorway service area, it has not become a corridor of development so as not to compete with urban regeneration of the conurbation. However, it does increase rural accessibility and therefore has increased the viability of the surrounding rural communities as centres for commuting. The challenge for the spatial planner is to assess the big picture via a landscape-scale approach within local scale issues. For example, agricultural diversification which may lead to proposals for sports pitches and golf courses (both acceptable in principle) would have a significant visual and recreational impact. Issues of farmhouse barn conversions and industrial sites will be important for small scale rural development but need to be carefully located. Pressures for canal-related development such as marinas would need to be assessed in a similar way, but treated sympathetically because of their potential contribution to biodiversity, flood storage and local economic diversification.In essence the spatial planner works across scales (national to local ) and sectors (highways, health, environment, culture and economic development ) in pursuit of a virtuous circle between people, place, economy and environment. Sldie 15

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reluRural Economy andLand Use ProgrammeThe ecosystem approach is the integrated approach to sustainable land and sea management for the benefit of people. It articulates the benefits in terms of ecosystem services such as food, water quality, carbon storage and recreation and these benefits can be valued (both in monetary and non-monetary terms) to inform decision making It recognises the need to consider the natural environment holistically, as a functioning ecosystem and operates at a range of spatial scales. It seeks to involve people in decision-making about the environment recognising that people who manage places and those who benefit to be relevant10

reluRural Economy andLand Use ProgrammeTaking an ecosystem approach in decision making means that we have taken account of the functioning of the system, the value of the benefits and peoples views on changes. This leads to better integrated decision making and better sustainable management of our natural environment. The management of the countryside in this picture could be planned using an ecosystem approach. We could assess the benefits it currently provides to people such as recreation, bird watching, slowing the flow of water to help alleviate flooding, filtering our water, storing carbon, or providing goods such as food and wood. We need to consider a range of options. Do we want more or less of these services? What will be the impact of other drivers such as climate change on the functioning of this system? What changes are not desirable? Who will win or lose. How could we pay for these services? How can we make it happen? Working with the community and partners, we can consider all these aspects to develop a vision and a plan for this area that provides the benefits that people want and has a healthy functioning natural environment.

11Mind the gap

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme12Disintegrated Development Natural Environment lens Natural Environment White Paper Habitat and Landscape DEFRA Ecosystem Approach Classifying and ValuingNational Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Biodiversity Development Areas Nature Improvement Areas Local Nature PartnershipsBuilt Environment lens National Planning Policy Framework Local DCLGSpatial Planning Zoning and Ordering Sustainability Assessments Development/Neighbourhood Plans Enterprise Zones / Green BeltsLocal Enterprise Partnerships

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme1. The natural environment is based on reward, whilst the built environment is based on restraint and control. 2.The natural environment is driven by the Natural Environment White Paper whilst the built environment is being driven by the emerging National Planning Policy Framework with limited connection between the two.3.The natural environment is focussed at the habitat and landscape scale whilst the built environment is currently moving towards a local scale.4.The natural environment is overseen by Defra with its delivery agencies (Natural England, Environment Agency and Forestry Commission) whilst the built environment is over seen by the Department for the Communities and Local Government with its delivery agencies being local authorities.5.The natural environment champions the ecosystem approach whilst the built environment champions spatial planning.6.The natural environment classifies habitats and species whilst the built environment zones and orders using land use plans.7.The natural environment uses the UK National Ecosystem Assessment whilst the built environment uses Sustainability Assessments incorporating Strategic Environmental Assessment.8.The natural environment currently uses the umbrella of Integrated Biodiversity Delivery Areas whilst the built environment uses the umbrella of Development plans.9.The natural environment is promoting Nature Improvement Areas for environmental funding whilst the built environment is promoting enterprise zones for economic funding.10.The natural environment is developing Local Nature Partnerships whilst the Built Environment has developed Local Enterprise partnerships.13Disintegrated Development Natural Environment lens Incentives Natural Environment White Paper Habitat and Landscape DEFRA Ecosystem Approach Classifying and ValuingNational Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Biodiversity Development Areas Nature Improvement Areas Local Nature PartnershipsBuilt Environment lens Control National Planning Policy Framework Local DCLGSpatial Planning Zoning and Ordering Sustainability Assessments Development/Neighbourhood Plans Enterprise Zones / Green BeltsLocal Enterprise Partnerships

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme1. The natural environment is based on reward, whilst the built environment is based on restraint and control. 2.The natural environment is driven by the Natural Environment White Paper whilst the built environment is being driven by the emerging National Planning Policy Framework with limited connection between the two.3.The natural environment is focussed at the habitat and landscape scale whilst the built environment is currently moving towards a local scale.4.The natural environment is overseen by Defra with its delivery agencies (Natural England, Environment Agency and Forestry Commission) whilst the built environment is over seen by the Department for the Communities and Local Government with its delivery agencies being local authorities.5.The natural environment champions the ecosystem approach whilst the built environment champions spatial planning.6.The natural environment classifies habitats and species whilst the built environment zones and orders using land use plans.7.The natural environment uses the UK National Ecosystem Assessment whilst the built environment uses Sustainability Assessments incorporating Strategic Environmental Assessment.8.The natural environment currently uses the umbrella of Integrated Biodiversity Delivery Areas whilst the built environment uses the umbrella of Development plans.9.The natural environment is promoting Nature Improvement Areas for environmental funding whilst the built environment is promoting enterprise zones for economic funding.10.The natural environment is developing Local Nature Partnerships whilst the Built Environment has developed Local Enterprise partnerships.14Natural Environment lens Incentives Natural Environment White Paper Habitat and Landscape DEFRA Ecosystem Approach Classifying and ValuingNational Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Biodiversity Development Areas Nature Improvement Areas Local Nature PartnershipsBuilt Environment lens Control National Planning Policy Framework Local DCLGSpatial Planning Zoning and Ordering Sustainability Assessments Development/Neighbourhood Plans Enterprise Zones / Green BeltsLocal Enterprise Partnerships

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme15Natural Environment lens Incentives Natural Environment White Paper Habitat and Landscape DEFRA Ecosystem Approach Classifying and ValuingNational Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Biodiversity Development Areas Nature Improvement Areas Local Nature PartnershipsBuilt Environment lens Control National Planning Policy Framework Local DCLGSpatial Planning Zoning and Ordering Sustainability Assessments Development/Neighbourhood Plans Enterprise Zones / Green BeltsLocal Enterprise Partnerships

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme16Natural Environment lens Incentives Natural Environment White Paper Habitat and Landscape DEFRA Ecosystem Approach Classifying and ValuingNational Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Biodiversity Development Areas Nature Improvement Areas Local Nature PartnershipsBuilt Environment lens Control National Planning Policy Framework Local DCLGSpatial Planning Zoning and Ordering Sustainability Assessments Development/Neighbourhood Plans Enterprise Zones / Green BeltsLocal Enterprise Partnerships

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme17Natural Environment lens Incentives Natural Environment White Paper Habitat and Landscape DEFRA Ecosystem Approach Classifying and ValuingNational Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Biodiversity Development Areas Nature Improvement Areas Local Nature PartnershipsBuilt Environment lens Control National Planning Policy Framework Local DCLGSpatial Planning Zoning and Ordering Sustainability Assessments Development/Neighbourhood Plans Enterprise Zones / Green BeltsLocal Enterprise Partnerships

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme18Natural Environment lens Incentives Natural Environment White Paper Habitat and Landscape DEFRA Ecosystem Approach Classifying and ValuingNational Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Biodiversity Development Areas Nature Improvement Areas Local Nature PartnershipsBuilt Environment lens Control National Planning Policy Framework Local DCLGSpatial Planning Zoning and Ordering Sustainability Assessments Development/Neighbourhood Plans Enterprise Zones / Green BeltsLocal Enterprise Partnerships

reluRural Economy andLand Use Programme19Natural Environment lens Incentives Natural Environment White Paper Habitat and Landscape DEFRA Ecosystem Approach Classifying and ValuingNational Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Biodiversity Development Areas Nature Improvement Areas Local Nature PartnershipsBu...