Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day

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<ul><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 1/177</p><p>Reasoningskills</p><p>successin 20 minutes</p><p>a Day</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 2/177</p><p>Other titles Of interest frOm</p><p>learningexpress</p><p>Biology Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p>Chemistry Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p>Earth Science Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p>Grammar Success in 20 Minutes a Day, 2nd Edition</p><p>Physics Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p>Practical Math Success in 20 Minutes a Day, 4th Edition</p><p>Statistics Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p>Trigonometry Success in 20 Minutes</p><p>Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day, 5th Edition</p><p>Writing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day, 4th Edition</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 3/177</p><p>n e w y o R k </p><p>Reasoning</p><p>skillssuccessin 20 minutes</p><p>a Day</p><p>3rd Edition</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 4/177</p><p>Copyright 2010 LearningExpress, LLC.</p><p>All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York.</p><p>Library o Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Reasoning skills success in 20 minutes a day.3rd ed.</p><p>p. cm.</p><p>ISBN 978-1-57685-726-7</p><p>1. Reasoning (Psychology) I. LearningExpress (Oranization) II Title: Reasoning skills success in twenty minutes</p><p>a day.</p><p>BF442.R44 2010153.4'3dc22</p><p>2009030907</p><p>Printed in the United States o America</p><p>9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p><p>First Edition</p><p>ISBN-13 978-1-57685-720-5</p><p>For more inormation or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at:</p><p>2 Rector Street</p><p>26th Floor</p><p>New York, NY 10006</p><p>Or visit us at:</p><p>www.learnatest.com</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 5/177</p><p>contRibutoRs ix</p><p>How to use tHis book xi</p><p>PRetest 1</p><p>lesson 1 cRitical tHinking anD Reasoning skills 15</p><p> What Are Critical Thinking and Reasoning Skills?</p><p>Denition: The Dierence between Reason and Emotion</p><p>Justiying Your DecisionWhy Critical Thinking and Reasoning Skills Are Important</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 2 PRoblem-solving stRategies 21</p><p> Denition: What Is a Problem?</p><p>Identiying the Problem</p><p>Breaking the Problem into Its Parts</p><p>Prioritizing Issues</p><p>Relevance o Issues</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 3 tHinking vs. knowing 27</p><p> Denition: Fact vs. Opinion</p><p>Why the Dierence between Fact and Opinion Is Important</p><p>Tentative Truths</p><p>Fact vs. Opinion in Critical Reasoning</p><p>In Short</p><p>c</p><p>v</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 6/177</p><p>v</p><p>contents</p><p>lesson 4 wHo makes tHe claim? 33</p><p> Denition: What is Credibility?</p><p>How to Determine Credibility</p><p>Recognizing Bias</p><p>Special Case: Eyeswitness CredibilityIn Short</p><p>lesson 5 PaRtial claims anD Hal-tRutHs 41</p><p> The Trouble with Incomplete Claims</p><p>Test and Studies</p><p>Averages</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 6 wHats in a woRD? 47</p><p> Euphemisms and Dysphemisms</p><p>Biased QuestionsIn Short</p><p>lesson 7 woRking witH aRguments 53</p><p> Inductive Reasoning</p><p>Deductive Reasoning</p><p>Indentiying the Overall Conclusion</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 8 evaluating eviDence 61</p><p> Types o Evidence</p><p>Is the Evidence Credible?Is the Evidence Reasonable?</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 9 Recognizing a gooD aRgument 67</p><p> Clear and Complete</p><p>Free o Excessive Subtle Persuasion</p><p>Credible and Reasonable Premises</p><p>Sucient and Substantive Premises</p><p>Considering the Other Side</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 10 Putting it all togetHeR 73</p><p> Lesson 1: Critical Thinking and Reasoning Skills</p><p>Lesson 2: Problem-Solving Strategies</p><p>Lesson 3: Thinking vs. Knowing</p><p>Lesson 4: Who Makes the Claim?</p><p>Lesson 5: Partial Claims and Hal-Truths</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 7/177</p><p>contents</p><p>Lesson 6: Whats in a Word?</p><p>Lesson 7: Working with Arguments</p><p>Lesson 8: Evaluating Evidence</p><p>Lesson 9: Recognizing a Good Argument</p><p>lesson 11 logical allacies: aPPeals to emotion 77</p><p> Scare Tactics</p><p>Flattery</p><p>Peer Pressure</p><p>Pity</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 12 logical allacies: tHe imPostoRs 83</p><p> No In-Betweens</p><p>Slippery Slope</p><p>Circular ReasoningTwo Wrongs Make a Right</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 13 logical allacies: DistRacteRs anD DistoRteRs 89</p><p> Ad Hominem</p><p>Red Herring</p><p>Straw Man</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 14 wHy DiD it HaPPen? 97</p><p> RelevanceTestability</p><p>Circularity</p><p>Compatibility with Existing Knowledge</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 15 inDuctive Reasoning: PaRt i 105</p><p> The Science o Inductive Reasoning</p><p>Elementary, My Dear Watson</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 16 JumPing to conclusions 107</p><p> Hasty Generalizations</p><p>Biased Generalizations</p><p>Non Sequitur</p><p>In Short</p><p>v </p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 8/177</p><p>v </p><p>contents</p><p>lesson 17 inDuctive Reasoning: PaRt ii 113</p><p>Determining Cause</p><p>Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc</p><p> The Chicken or the Egg?</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 18 numbeRs neveR lie 121</p><p> First Things First: Consider the Source</p><p>The Importance o Sample Size</p><p>Representative, Random, and Biased Samples</p><p>Comparing Apples and Oranges</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 19 PRoblem solving RevisiteD 129</p><p> Common Sense</p><p>Evaluating EvidenceDrawing Conclusions rom Evidence</p><p>In Short</p><p>lesson 20 Putting it all togetHeR 135</p><p> Lesson 11: Logical Fallacies: Appeals to Emotion</p><p>Lesson 12: Logical Fallacies: The Imposters</p><p>Lesson 13: Logical Fallacies: Distracters and Distorters</p><p>Lesson 14: Why Did It Happen?</p><p>Lesson 15: Inductive Reasoning, Part I</p><p>Lesson 16: Jumping to Conclusions</p><p>Lesson 17: Inductive Reasoning, Part IILesson 18: Numbers Never Lie</p><p>Lesson 19: Problem Solving Revisited</p><p>Congratulations!</p><p>Posttest 141</p><p>aPPenDix How to PRePaRe oR a test 153</p><p> Two to Three Months beore the Test</p><p>The Days beore the Test</p><p>Test DayCombating Test Anxiety</p><p>Time Strategies</p><p>Avoiding Errors</p><p>Ater the Test</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 9/177</p><p>crr</p><p>Elizabeth Chesla is the author oTOEFL Exam Success, ACT Exam Success, GED Success, Reading Comprehension</p><p>Success, Write Better Essays, and many other writing and reading guides and test preparation books. She lives in</p><p>South Orange, New Jersey.</p><p>Tamra Orr is a ull-time educational writer living in the Pacic Northwest. She has written several test prepara-</p><p>tion books and works or a dozen o the nations largest testing companies. She is the author o more than 70</p><p>books, mother o our, and wie o one.</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 10/177</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 11/177</p><p>this book is designed to help you improve your critical thinking and reasoning skills in 20 short lessonsthat should take 20 minutes a day to complete. I you read one chapter a day, Monday through Friday,and do all the exercises careully, you should see dramatic improvement in your ability to think criti-cally and to solve problems logically and eectively by the end o your month o study.</p><p>Although each lesson is designed to be a skill builder on its own, it is important that you proceed through</p><p>this book in order, rom Lesson 1 through Lesson 20. Like most other skills, critical thinking and reasoning</p><p>develop in layers. Each lesson in this book builds upon the ideas discussed in those lessons beore it.</p><p>Each lesson provides several exercises that give you the opportunity to practice the skills you learn through-out the book. To help you be sure youre on the right track, youll also nd answers and explanations or these</p><p>exercise sets. Each lesson also provides practical suggestions or how to continue practicing the taught skills</p><p>throughout the rest o the day and weekand the rest o your lie. In addition, two special review lessons go over</p><p>the key skills and concepts in each hal o the book and provide you with practice applying them in practical,</p><p>real-lie situations.</p><p>To help you gauge your progress, this book contains a pretest and a posttest. You should take the pretest</p><p>beore you start Lesson 1. Then, ater youve nished Lesson 20, take the posttest. The tests contain dierent ques-</p><p>tions but assess the same skills, so you will be able to see how much your critical thinking and reasoning skills</p><p>have improved ater completing the lessons in this book.</p><p>b a lr d orr</p><p>To make the most o this text, its important to remember that critical thinking and reasoning skills are necessary</p><p>or just about every aspect o liewhether personal, proessional, or academic. Thats why its so important to</p><p>become an active listener and observer.</p><p>H u th b</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 12/177</p><p>How to use tHis book</p><p>People oten come to conclusions based on what</p><p>they think or eel rather than on the evidence beore</p><p>them. They make decisions based on what theywant</p><p>to hear rather than what is really being said; they take</p><p>action based on what they imagine to be true ratherthan what is actually the case. But by really listening to</p><p>what people say and how they say it (acial expressions</p><p>and tone oten say much more than words them-</p><p>selves), you help ensure that you will be reacting to</p><p>whats really being said, not just to what you want to</p><p>hear.</p><p>Similarly, by paying careul attention to and think-</p><p>ing critically about every situation, youll help ensure</p><p>that the decisions you make and the conclusions you</p><p>come to will be justied. For example, i a place looksunsavory to you, analyze what it is about that place that</p><p>makes you uncomortable. Feelings generally come</p><p>rom things we are able to sense, even subconsciously,</p><p>in our environment. The more you can point to as jus-</p><p>tication or your thoughts, eelings, and actions, the</p><p>more logical your decisions and actions will be.</p><p>Much o this book will be devoted to helping you</p><p>build your observation skills. Meanwhile, here are a</p><p>ew pointers to help you not only as you work through</p><p>this book, but in everything you do.</p><p>Keep an Open MindIt is very rarely the case that there is onlyone possible</p><p>answer to a problem or onlyone right way to think</p><p>or act. Even in math, where things seem to be black</p><p>and white, there is usually more than one way to solve</p><p>a problem. When it comes to making decisions, espe-</p><p>cially those that involve other people, remember that</p><p>between black and white, there are a thousand shades</p><p>o gray. You may preer one shade over another, but</p><p>that doesnt necessarily cancel out the other colors.</p><p>Consider All SidesIt is easy to make the mistake o coming to a conclu-</p><p>sion or making a decision beore all sides o an argu-</p><p>ment are heard. However, the more complete a picture</p><p> you can get o a given situation, the more eective</p><p>your decision or solution will be. To that end, listen to</p><p>all sides o an argument, and examine a situation rom</p><p>various points o view. I you do, your decisions will</p><p>be much more sound and youll be able to solve prob-</p><p>lems more eectively.</p><p>Separate Feelings from FactsThis book will address, in more detail, the dierence</p><p>between act and opinion later on, but the distinction</p><p>is so important that its worth mentioning now. What</p><p>most oten clouds peoples ability to reason eectively</p><p>is their emotions. Indeed, this is a natural tendency,</p><p>but i you give eelings precedence over reason, you</p><p>oten end up making poor decisions. This is not to say</p><p>that you shouldnt consider your eelingso courseyou shouldbut just be sure theyre not overriding</p><p>the acts.</p><p>Think before You ActPeople are oten under pressure to make quick deci-</p><p>sions. But with the exception o emergency situations,</p><p>its usually best to take time to reason things through.</p><p>Hasty decisions are less productive in the long run</p><p>because theyre usually not the most logical or</p><p>inormed decisions. I you take a little time to considerall sides and separate eelings rom acts, youre much</p><p>more likely to make a wise decision or nd an eective</p><p>solution.</p><p>O course, sometimes making a quick decision is</p><p>the only option, like when taking a timed test or in an</p><p>emergency situation. Thats why its so important to</p><p>build your reasoning skills now and make them a part</p><p>o your everyday thought process. Then when you are</p><p>pressed or time, youll be able to reason through the</p><p>situation quickly and eectively.</p><p>I any o this sounds conusing, dont worry</p><p>each o these ideas will be explained thoroughly in the</p><p>lessons that ollow. Whats important is that you work</p><p>on developing these skills, starting with Lesson 1,</p><p>Critical Thinking and Reasoning Skills.</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 13/177</p><p>Beore you start your study o reasoning skills, you may want to get an idea o how much youalready know and how much you need to learn. I thats the case, take the pretest in this chapter.The pretest consists o 35 multiple-choice questions that cover all the lessons in this book. Naturally,not all o the reasoning skills in this book are covered on the test. Even i you get all o the questions on the pre-</p><p>test right, you will undoubtedly prot rom working through the lessons anyway; only a raction o the inorma-</p><p>tion in this book is covered on the pretest. On the other hand, i you miss a lot o questions on the pretest, dont</p><p>despair. These lessons are designed to teach you critical thinking and reasoning skills step by step. Just take your</p><p>time and enjoy the learning process.I you get a high score on this pretest, you may be able to spend less time working through this book than</p><p>you originally planned. I you get a low score, you may nd that you will need more than 20 minutes a day to get</p><p>through each chapter and learn all about logical reasoning.</p><p>On the next page, theres an answer sheet you can use to ll in your answer choices. Or, i you preer, simply</p><p>circle the correct answer underneath the item itsel. I the book doesnt belong to you, write the numbers 135</p><p>on a piece o paper and record your answers there. Take as much time as you need to complete this short test.</p><p>When you nish, check your answers against the answer key at the end o this chapter. Each answer tells you</p><p>which chapter o this book teaches you about the reasoning skill in that question.</p><p>Pr</p><p>1</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 14/177</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 15/177</p><p>leaRningexPRess answeR sHeet</p><p> 1. a b c d</p><p> 2. a b c d</p><p> 3. a b c d</p><p> 4. a b c d</p><p> 5. a b c d</p><p> 6. a b c d</p><p> 7. a b c d</p><p> 8. a b c d</p><p> 9. a b c d</p><p>10. a b c d</p><p>11. a b c d</p><p>12. a b c d</p><p>13. a b c d</p><p>14. a b c d</p><p>15. a b c d</p><p>16. a b c d</p><p>17. a b c d</p><p>18. a b c d</p><p>19. a b c d</p><p>20. a b c d</p><p>21. a b c d</p><p>22. a b c d</p><p>23. a b c d</p><p>24. a b c d</p><p>25. a b c d</p><p>26. a b c d</p><p>27. a b c d</p><p>28. a b c d</p><p>29. a b c d</p><p>30. a b c d</p><p>31. a b c d</p><p>32. a b c d</p><p>33. a b c d</p><p>34. a b c d</p><p>35. a b c d</p><p>3</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 16/177</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 Reasoning Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day</p><p> 17/177</p><p>5</p><p>PRetest</p><p>Pr</p><p>Read the ollowing passage and then answer the ques-</p><p>tions that ollow.</p><p>Wendy is a junior in high school and is getting ready</p><p>to choose a college. She is a serious student and</p><p>wants to go to the school with the best premed pro-</p><p>gram. However, she doesnt want to be too ar rom</p><p>home because she wants to be able to visit her sister,</p><p>who has recently been in a serious accident, on a reg-</p><p>ular basis. Wendy is likely to obtain scholarships</p><p>perhaps even a ull scholarshipbut she is worried</p><p>that her parents may not be able to aord whatever</p><p>costs the scholarships dont cover.</p><p>1. Which o the ollowing most accurately</p><p>presents the issues Wendy must consider, in</p><p>order o priority?</p><p>a. academic reputation, nancial aid, social lie</p><p>on campus</p><p>b. location, nancial aid, and academic</p><p>reputation</p><p>c. nancial aid, student services, location</p><p>d. academic reputation, campus enviro...</p></li></ul>