rahimov, mpd

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managed pressure drilling

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FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MASTERS THESIS Programme of study: Petroleum/Drilling engineering Spring semester, 2009 Author: Elmaddin Rahimov (Authors signature) Academic supervisor: Jan Aage Aasen Industrial supervisor: Stein Kristian Andersen Through Tubing Rotary Managed Pressure Drilling ECTS:30 Keywords: Through tubing drilling Managed pressure drilling Through tubing rotary managed pressure drilling Pressure management and hole-cleaning No. of pages: 84 + References/Appendices: 18 Stavanger, 15th of June 2009 Abstract 2 Abstract Managed pressure drilling (MPD) has been known to the industry for a few years. MPD with the ability of coping with risky down-hole pressure situations has gained a great deal of attention. Compared to MPD, the drilling method designated through tubing drilling (TTD) is considerably younger. StatoilHydro, as one of the TTD pioneers, has drilled TTD wells in its North Sea assets, of which the majority have been the through tubing rotary drilling (TTRD) wells. The aim of initiating this technology was to access small and by-passed oil pools in mature assets in a cost effective manner, since TTRD rules out the need of pulling the well completion. From StatoilHydros experience we see that TTRD is one of the complex drilling methods. Drilling by this technique has seen a number of challenges and drilling problems. In fact, the majority of these problems are linked to system and down-hole pressure environments, and thus to drilling hydraulics. Pressure induced drilling problems can be solved by application of MPD. The idea in this study is that the simultaneous application of TTRD and MPD will enable us to mitigate problems relating to pressure conditions and drill cost effective TTRD. Therefore, this thesis was initiated to study the hydraulics of through tubing rotary managed pressure drilling (TTRMPD). In this study two specially looked at MPD methods: back pressure and continuous circulation system allow for the reduction of the static mud weight in order to manage circulating mud weight and stay within available drilling window. This study looks into hydraulics of the TTRMPD operation in terms of equivalent circulating density (ECD), hole-cleaning, extended reach ability. In the TTRD, ECD management is particularly challenging due to narrow annular clearance. This master thesis focuses on the feasibility of combining MPD and TTRD to improve the ECD management in TTRD. We will look into the effects that the reducing mud weight may have on drilling parameters. Table of contents 3 Table of contents Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... 2 Table of contents ........................................................................................................................ 3 Abbreviation............................................................................................................................... 5 List of symbols ........................................................................................................................... 6 Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................... 9 1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 10 2 Through Tubing Drilling (TTD) ...................................................................................... 11 2.1 General Insight into TTD......................................................................................... 11 2.2 Through Tubing Rotary Drilling (TTRD) ................................................................ 11 2.2.1 Drillpipes Used in TTRD Operations............................................................... 12 2.2.2 Drilling BHA and Its Components in TTRD................................................... 13 2.2.3 Window Milling ............................................................................................... 13 2.2.4 Protection of Completion Elements ................................................................. 14 2.3 Coiled Tubing Drilling (CTD) ................................................................................. 16 2.4 Subsea TTD.............................................................................................................. 17 2.5 TTD Summary.......................................................................................................... 17 3 Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) .................................................................................. 20 3.1 Introduction to Managed Pressure Drilling and Definitions .................................... 20 3.2 Back Pressure Technique (BPT) .............................................................................. 21 3.2.1 General ............................................................................................................. 21 3.2.2 BHP in Conventional Drilling Mode ............................................................... 21 3.2.3 BHP in MPD Back Pressure Drilling Mode..................................................... 22 3.2.4 Equipment for Back Pressure Technique ......................................................... 23 3.2.5 Back Pressure Operation .................................................................................. 28 3.3 Continuous Circulation System (CCS) .................................................................... 29 3.3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 29 3.3.2 CCS System...................................................................................................... 30 3.3.3 CCS Control System........................................................................................ 31 3.3.4 Application....................................................................................................... 31 3.3.5 Pressure Management ...................................................................................... 31 3.3.6 CCS Rig-Up ..................................................................................................... 32 3.4 ECD Reduction Tool ................................................................................................ 33 3.5 Pressurized Mud-Cap Drilling ................................................................................. 34 3.6 Dual-Gradient Drilling ............................................................................................. 34 4 Drilling Hydraulics........................................................................................................... 35 4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 35 4.2 Rheological Models.................................................................................................. 35 4.3 Friction Pressure Drop Calculations and Flow Regimes ......................................... 36 4.3.1 Pipe Flow.......................................................................................................... 36 4.3.2 Annular Flow.................................................................................................... 38 4.4 Eccentricity, Rotation and Tool Joint Effects on AFP Loss .................................... 41 4.4.1 Eccentricity Effect............................................................................................ 41 4.4.2 Rotation Effect ................................................................................................. 41 4.4.3 Tool Joint Effect............................................................................................... 42 4.5 Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) .................................................................... 42 Table of contents 4 4.6 Hole-Cleaning .......................................................................................................... 42 4.6.1 Hole-Cleaning Introduction.............................................................................. 42 4.6.2 Particle Settling Mechanisms ........................................................................... 44 4.6.3 Drill Cuttings and Their Characteristics........................................................... 45 4.6.4 Flow Characteristics......................................................................................... 45 4.6.5 Mud Properties ................................................................................................. 47 4.6.6 Cuttings Concentration..................................................................................... 48 4.6.7 Cuttings Transport Ratio .................................................................................. 49 4.7 Slip Velocity............................................................................................................. 49 4.7.1 Moore Correlation............................................................................................ 50 4.7.2 Chien Correlation ............................................................................................. 51 4.7.3 Walker and Mayes Correlation ........................................................................ 52 4.8 Bit Hydraulics .......................................................................................................... 53 4.8.1 Bit Pressure Drop ............................................................................................. 53 4.8.2 Nozzle Velocity.............................