radiation and cancer

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Radiation and cancer by Dr Rangarajan

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  • 1.RADIATION & CANCER Dr V. RangarajanHead, Dept. of Bio-Imaging Unit Tata Memorial HospitalMumbai , India

2. Radiation and Tolerance 3. Medical uses of radiation -DiagnosticAlmost all imaging tests use radiationX-rays, CT scans, angiograms etcWorldwide, approximately 330 radiologicalexaminations are done per 1000 populationExtremely useful for diagnosis of most diseasesincluding cancerRadio-isotopes : Bones scan, PET Scan, Perfusion scans 4. Radiation & Cancer Outcome Uterine Cervical Cancer > 90% survival Laryngeal Cancer> 95% survival Ewings sarcoma & Hodgkins lymphoma meltaway with radiotherapy Radiotherapy improves cure rates by 30%when added to Surgery & Chemotherapy 5. Radiation : Stochastic(Linear, Cumulative & no Threshold) Natural radiation occurs from varioussources Earth, soil Outer space Nuclear power plants and health issues Cancer Congenital anomalies Accidents 6. Radiation & Cancer Highest incidence in the north east No nuclear reactors in these states Incidence in Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore,Ahmadabad and Delhi (cities with one ormore nuclear reactors) similar to othermetropolitan cities with no reactors 7. Cancer incidence in IndiaAreas with noAreas with 1/morenuclear reactors nuclear reactors 8. Karunagapally - Kerala Highnaturalradiation Thoriumsands StudyconductedbyRegional CancerCentre,Trivandrum 9. Jayalekshmi P et al. High natural radiation and cancer in Karunagapally, Kerala 10. Eldorado (Canada) Uranium workers 17660uraniumworkersfollowedforseveraldecades ComparedwithgeneralCanadianpopulation Lowermortalityratesfromallcausesandallcancers Lowerincidenceofcancers healthyworker effect?Lane RS et al. Radiation Res 2010; Oct 4 11. French nuclear power plants Study conducted in 20 km radius of 29 nuclear installations in France Incidence rates comparable to national incidence rates as reference (cancer, cong. Anomalies, sterility) No increase in childhood Leukemia seenLaurier D et al. J Radiol Prot. 2008 September ; 28(3): 401403 12. Finnish nuclear power plants Three approaches ecological analysis at municipality level residential cohorts defined from censusdata case-control analysis with individualresidential histories Compared to normal Finnish population No increase in childhood leukemia orother cancers in areas next to the Finnishpower plantsHeinevaara S et al. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 April; 21(4): 587595 13. Finnish nuclear power plants - 2 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers studied No increase in cancer incidence No association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation doseAuvinen A et al. J Occup Environ Med 2002 Jul;44(7):634-8 14. Radiation exposure in Taiwan A Co-60 source was mixed in metal scrap, melted and drawninto steel bars which were used in the construction of 1700apartments for about 10,000 residents in 1982-84. Residents were irradiated at least for 9 years, some up to 20years Annual dose in the first year 1983 was from about 50 mSv/y,up to 600 mSv/y Total averaged dose started at 0.4 Sv, and went up to 6 Sv.Luan YC, et al. The true health effects of radiation 15. Taiwan observed vs expectedcancer deaths180160140120100 80 60Mortality of publicMortality of irradiatedid t 40 20083 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 2001 2002year Luan YC, et al. The true health effects of radiation 16. Taiwan incident - conclusions Chronicradiationexposuremayactuallybebeneficialtohumans Lowerincidenceofcancerscomparedtoexpected Lowerincidenceofcongenitalanomaliescomparedtoexpected. Luan YC, et al. The true health effects of radiation 17. ACCIDENTS 18. ACCIDENTS ACCIDENTS : FACTSCategory Fukushima DaiichiChernobyl A UN report places the total confirmed deathsRelated deathsNo deaths so far due to radiationfrom radiation at 64 as of 2008. Disputes continue about how many will eventually die Among the residents of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, there had been up to the year 2005 more than 6,000 cases of thyroidNot yet known, but risks to human healthLong-term health damagecancer reported in children and adolescents whoare thought to be low were exposed at the time of the accident, and more cases can be expected during the next decadesOfficials say radiation leaks are continuingand could eventually exceed those at The damaged reactor is now encased in aCurrent statusChernobyl. The priority is restoring concrete shell. A new containment structure isadequate coolant to the fuel ponds and the due to be completed by 2014reactors themselves 19. Why tame the Nuclear Power? Enslave technology to serve immortality We tame technology to improve quality of life Ratio of benefit to risk 20. 90A 80BLife Expectancy (Years)GDP (US$/ Capita) 10000 706050 100040 2 GDP=3.18-0.296(EA)+0.148(EA)LE =37+43/(1+exp(5.0-0.88*ln(EA )))3010100 1000 10000101001000 10000Electricity Av ailability (Kwh/Capita) Electricity Av ailability (Kwh/Capita) 81.0C D0.8 6Fertility (Number)HDI (Number)0.6 40.4 20.2F=1.2+8.5/(1+exp(-3.13+0.65*ln(EA))) HDI=0.31+0.69/(1+exp(4.7-0.74*ln(EA))) 0 10 10010001000010100100010000 Electricity Av ailability (Kwh/Capita) Electricity Av ailability (Kwh/Capita)Figure 5. Correlation amongst Human Development IndicatorsContinuous lines are the anlytical fits for the scatter plots. Fit expressionsare giv en near the X axis. 21. Worldwide Severe Accidents, Aggregate Fatalities and Normalized Fatalities for all Energy Options during 1969-2000* EnergyChain No.ofTotal Normalised Accidents Fatalities Fatalities(perGWa)Coalglobal1221 251070.876CoalwithChinaexcluded 177 70900.690Oil397202830.436NaturalGas125 19780.093 Hydro11299384.265 *Hydro2 10 39380.561Nuclear 1 330.06** 22. Nagasaki Before and after 23. Nagasaki Hypocenter 24. Chernobyl : Now 25. Thank you

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