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QualityandAccountability:Itisnotenoughtodothethingsright,therightthingshavetobedoneNotesfromthepaneldiscussionorganizedbyCHSAlliance,theSphereProject&GroupeURD,aneventsponsoredbySwitzerlandandDenmarkArnoWicki,DeputyHeadofSwissHumanitarianAidandSHA,HeadofMultilateralDivisionArnoWickiintroducedthediscussion,askingHowcanwedotherightthingsanddothemwell?Thoughitseemsobviousdoingitisnottrivial,especiallyifwealsowanttoensurepeoplehaveavoice.Fromadonorperspective,thequestionishowcanwemakethemostoutofthelimitedresourceswehave?Well,ouropinionisthatwithstandardsandquality,wecanputpeopleatthecentrewhileatthesametimebeingmoreeffective.StephanSchnemann,DirectorforHumanitarianAffairs,MinistryofForeignAffairsofDenmarkThereportoftheSecretaryGeneralOneHumanity:SharedResponsibilityhighlightsthechallengesthatpoliticalactors,donors,developmentandhumanitarianorganizationsarefacingandwillhavetodealwithinthecomingyears:weallhavetodomoreandbetterwithconstrainedresources!Thiscallsforarenewedcommitmenttowardsenhancingthequality,accountabilityandeffectivenessofhumanitarianassistance.Theprogressmadeinadvocatingforputtingpeopleatthecentreofhumanitarianactionissignificant.Yetthechallengeoftranslatingthisintomeaningfulpolicy,practice,andaconsistentlyappliedapproachtoconsultation,participation,localleadership,assessment,monitoring,andreportingbyallhumanitarianactorsremainsadeepchallenge.Withtheattempttoraisethebarandsettingthestandard,anewqualityandaccountabilitytool-theCoreHumanitarianStandard-waslaunched1yearsagoinCopenhagen.TheStandardplacespeopleaffectedbycrisisatthecentreofhumanitarianaction,anditsetsoutninecommitmentsthatorganisationsandindividualsinvolvedinhumanitarianresponsecanusetoimprovethequalityandeffectivenessoftheassistancetheyprovide.WHSsideevent:QualityandAccountability:Itisnotenoughtodothethingsright,therightthingshavetobedone 2[ShowstheCHS]Thislittlebookletisthefruitofmanyyearsofhardwork-anditbringstogetherthemainelementsoftheSphereCoreStandards,theHAPstandard,theRedCrossandRedCrescentCodeofConduct,thePeopleinAidCodeofGoodPracticeandcriteriafromtheOECDsDACandfromtheQualityCompassdevelopedbyGroupeURD.ThekeystakeholdersofthiscommonstandardareGroupeURD,SphereandCHSAlliance.ItisworthcomplimentingtheseorganisationsandnetworksfortheiramazingeffortsinjoiningforcesandcreatingoneCoreHumanitarianStandardratherthataseriesofmany.Togethertheyarebuildingacomplementaryapproachthatcontributestoharmonisingandstrengtheningthecoherenceofstandards.Strengtheningthecoherenceofstandardsacrossdifferentsectorsofhumanitarianworkonthebasisofsharedfundamentalvalues,commonstructureandconsistentlanguageensuresgreaterownershipandenablesincreasedeffectivenessandefficiency.WiththerecentadoptionoftheCoreHumanitarianStandardbytheGlobalClusterstocomplementexistinginternationaltechnicalstandards,andwiththesupportthiscommonstandardhasgarneredasabaselinefororganizationalaccountabilityfromNGOstoactorssuchastheEuropeanCommission,wehavearealopportunitytostrengthenaframeworkwhichputspeopleatthecenterofhumanitarianaction.ThisopportunityhasalreadybeenusedtotranslateourcommonunderstandingofrecognizedstandardssuchasSphereandtheCHSintoinstitutionalcommitmentsandactionsatthelevelofHumanitarianResponsePlans.ThishasbeenthecaseintheresponseplansofSomalia,Afghanistan,NigerandDRCamongstothers.Whenresponseplans,commonprioritiesandcollectivegoalsareinformedbyevidenceandanalysisagainstinternationallyrecognizedstandardssignificantshiftsinpracticecanbeseen.Tomakethishappenrequiresstrongleadershipatcountrylevel.[Historicalperspective]Theseinitiativesillustratethatformorethan20years,thehumanitariansectorhasgraduallybeenimprovingitspracticesthroughthedevelopmentanddisseminationofamyriadofqualityandaccountabilityinitiativesandself-regulatorytools.Humanitarianorganisationshavegonethroughanenormousprofessionalizationprocess,whiletryingtoadapttovariouscodeofconducts,commonstandards,goodpractices,evaluationmechanismsandlearningnetworks.Wehaveatlargeseenagreatimprovementinthelogistical,financialandmanagerialsystemsoforganisations.Theiradministrativecontrolshavealsoincreasedinordertorespondtogrowingrequestsfromdonorsandpublicopinionabouttransparencyandaccountability.Andtheevaluationofresponseisnowwellacceptedandestablished.Thisisallgood.However,thequalityofhumanitarianaidfromtheperspectiveofbeneficiaries,localauthoritiesandmedia,isregularlyquestioned.Aseriesofchallengesarestillaheadofusandwecanaskourselvesthesequestions:1. Howdowemaintainqualityandaccountabilitywhileadaptingresponsestonewandincreasinglycomplexandfast-changingsituations,whichatthesametimerequireustoinnovate,takerisks,andacceleratelearning?2. Howdowemakesurethataffectedcommunitiesareputatthecenter,whichmeansinvestinginlocalcapacitiessothatinternationalactorssupportnationalmechanismsratherthanreplacethem?3. Howdowepassfromanindividualresponsibilitytoacollectiveone,whichmeansashiftfromcoordinatinginputstoachievingoutcomestogether?Andhowdowequicklytransitionfromshort-termcrisisassistancetosupportforcollectiveoutcomesinprotractedemergencies,whichenablerecoverywithdignity?Thepurposeoftodayssideeventistoexplorehowwecanaddresssomeofthechallengesjustmentioned-andtodiscusshowqualityandaccountabilitycanincreasetheeffectivenessandefficiencyofaid.MySwisscolleagueArnoWicky,DeputyHeadofSwissHumanitarianAidandHeadofMultilateralDivision,willguideyouthroughthisafternoonsdiscussions,whichIhopewillinspireusalltonotonlydothingsrightbuttoensurethatitistherightthingsthatweareactuallydoing!Thankyouallforlistening!WHSsideevent:QualityandAccountability:Itisnotenoughtodothethingsright,therightthingshavetobedone 3AminaLabarakwe,Communitymember,BaringoCountyKenya(translationintoEnglishprovidedbyRuthObwaya,ActionAidKenya)MynameisAmina.ImamemberofChurodivisioninBaringocountry,Kenya.Today,ImheretotalkaboutQualityandAccountabilityinthecontextofdisaster.Withthedroughtthattookplacein2011,wehadchallengesaswomentowalklongdistancestofeedchildren.Therewereinadequatehealthservices,andmenwentawayinsearchofpasturesfortheirlivestock.Manyorganizationsrespondedandsupportedusatthistime.MyunderstandingofQ&Aisaprocessthroughwhichpolicymakersaccountforwhattheyresupposedtodoorhavecommittedtodo.Inmycommunity,Iwasarepresentativeofavigilancecommittee,whichthroughitsworkwastheeyesofthecommunity.Thisisonewaywehelptoholdorganisationstoaccount.Anotheroneisinvolvementindecisionmakingprocess.Forexample,wewereinvolvedinprocurementprocesstoawardcontracts,whichhelpedtoimprovetransparency.Accountabilityisabottomupprocess.Itneedstoinvolvecommunitymembers,becausewearekeyinrespondingtodisasters.Ihavealsolearntthatwomenleadershipiskeyinanyresponseefforts.Mymessagetodayisthatthecurrentaccountabilitymodelwherewearemoreconcernedwiththedonorsdoesnotworkforcommunities;ratherwhatweshouldhaveisaccountabilitytowardsboththecommunityandthedonors.Thankyouforrespondingwithsolidarity.AlejandroMaldonadoExecutivesecretary,CONRED,GuatemalaFromthepointofviewofgovernments,lookingatstandardsisslightlydifferent.Asagovernment,webelieveintheimportanceofstandards,especiallySphere,becauseithelpsusbettermeettheneedsofourpopulation.Itishoweveralsoimportantforaccountabilityandtransparencypurposes.Standardsareanimportanttoolinthefightagainstcorruption,whichisabigissueinCentralAmerica.InOct.2009,theGovernmentofGuatemalacommittedinwritingtocomplywiththeSphereStandards.Weworkedtowardsthisgoalbydevelopingmanualsandprotocolstoimplementthiscommitment.Forexample,wedevelopedTermsofReferenceforprocurementactivitiesandpurchases,settingclearrulesforexampleforthebiddingprocess.Wealsoworkedwithourproviderssothattheymeetthestandardsintermsofwhattheyproduce,inordertobettermeettheneedsofendusers,dependingontheirowncontextandculture.Standardsarealsoveryusefulinsofarastheyhelpquantifytheamountofassistancethatoughttobeprovidedinanemergency.Inrelationtothat,italsoallowsustoplanforfutureeventsanddecidewhatshouldbeputinawarehouse.Veryimportantlyaswell,standardshelptominimisethehumanfactorandsupportobjectivedecisionsvs.arbitrarilydecidingwhatgoeswhere.Standardsalsopushustoimprove,evenwhenitmeansfightingwithourownlegislation.Wechangedourapproachintermsofwhatkindofmattresseswereprovidedtopeopleaffectedbycrisisbasedonthestandard,eventhoughitwasnteasytoachieve.Standardsareindispensabletoolsforabetterresponse.Theyhelptobetterprepareourresponse,allowtoreducethetimeneededtorespond,andareimportantforouraccountabilityandtransparency.WHSsideevent:QualityandAccountability:Itisnotenoughtodothethingsright,therightthingshavetobedone 4LiseGrande,ResidentHumanitarianCoordinator,IraqWe'dliketomakethreekeypointsabouttheaccountabilityagenda:First,wewanttoacknowledgehowimportantthisagendaisandtocelebratethehugeprogressthathasbeenmadeinthepastseveralyearstobringmoreandmoreattentiontoourcollectiveresponsibilities.Second,we'dliketoreflectontheconcretestepswecantakeatthegroundleveltoensurethattheaccountabilityagendaisputrightatthecentreofourcollectiveefforts.Thirdly,we'dliketoreflectgentlyonsomeofthekeythreatstotheaccountabilityagenda.Whenweretoldtodomorewithless,well,thatsathreattotheaccountabilityagenda.Whenwethinkbackonwhereweweretenyearsagointermsofaccountabilityandwherewearenow--it'sincredibletoseetheprogress.Tenyearsago,everyoneknewmoreneededtobedonetoensurewewereaccountabletothepopulationswewereserving,buttherewasdrift--somemightevencharacterizeitasoutrightavoidance.Wewouldsay--theSpherestandardsaregreatbutwedon'thaveenoughmoneytofundthem,wedon'thavetoolstoensuretheoperationalcyclehasintegrity;conditionsinthefieldaretoorestrictive,donorswon'tpay,ourcoordinationarchitectureisn'tdesignedforthis,andsoforth.When(inSudan,inthe90s)weactuallyaskedpopulationswhattheyneeded,peoplesaidWedontwantplasticbuckets,wewantcashandofcoursewewouldignorethat.Accountabilitywasrecognisedassomethingaspirationalbutthelackofanagreedapproachgaveusanalibi,allowingustoavoidreallyhavingtodoanythingseriousaboutit.Thishasallchanged.Becauseoftheeffortsofmanyorganisationsandmembersstatesandpeople,theaccountabilityagendaismoving.OneofthebestexamplesofthisaretheninecommitmentswhichmakeuptheCoreHumanitarianStandard.Thesecommitmentsareamanifestoofhowweshouldbeworking,anditsgreatitfeaturesintheGrandBargain.TheStandardisaveryclearstatementthathumanitariansmustseeaccountabilitytothepeopleweserveasourfundamentalresponsibility--somethingallofusareobligedtodo.TheStandardisawayofconcretisingourethicalcommitmentandputtingitliterallyatthecentreofeverythingwetrytodo.AstheBargaingainstraction,manyofuswillbeworkingtoensuringthishappens--sothatwedonthavetolookbackin10yearssayingwetried,butunfortunatelyfailed.OursecondpointisaboutimplementingtheCoreHumanitarianStandardintoourhumanitarianoperations--AlejandrohasspokenabouthowGovernmentsaredoingthis,Aminahasspokenabouthowcommunity-basedorganisationsaredoingthisandI'dliketoreflectonhowtheclustersystemandHumanitarianCountryTeamscandothis.We'dliketosuggestthatthereareatleastfourwaysinwhichHumanitarianCountryTeamscantaketheCHSandreallymakeitwork.First,wecaninsistthatallorganisationswishingtosubmitprojectstoaHumanitarianResponsePlanshowthattheyareworkingtoreachSpherestandardsandthequalitycriteriaintheCoreHumanitarianStandard.Adashboardcanbeusedtodothis.Second,wecaninsistthatallclustersdevelopworkplansbasedontheCoreHumanitarianStandardcycleandthatallclustersareworkingtodeliverassistanceatSpherestandards.TheHCTcancollectivelyreviewtheseworkplanstoensurefullsupportforthemacrosstheoperation.Third,wecaninsistthatonlyorganisationswhichareworkingtoreachSpherestandardsandthequalitycriteriaintheCHSareeligibletoseekfundsfromthein-countrypooledfundandfromtheCERF.Fourth,wecaninsistthatHCTsconductbiannualstrategicreviewsoftheiroperationstomonitorcollectiveprogressagainsttheCHSandSpherestandards.Ifwedojustthesefourthings,thiswillputaccountabilityattheverycentreofourcollectiveefforts.MakingsurethatallHumanitarianCountryTeamsdothesefourthingsrequirestwosteps:First,theIASCWHSsideevent:QualityandAccountability:Itisnotenoughtodothethingsright,therightthingshavetobedone 5needstochangethetermsofreferenceforHumanitarianCoordinatorstoincludedirectresponsibilityforintegratingtheCoreHumanitarianStandard,andSphereStandards,intotheoperationstheypresideover.Second,theIASCneedstodoexactlythesamethingforallclusterleadsagencies.Accountabilityistooimportanttoleavetothegoodwillandgoodintentionofhumanitarianactors.It'stimetomakeaccountabilitycompulsory.Ourthirdpointismoresensitive--it'sabouttheveryrealthreatstotheaccountabilityagendathatthecurrentfundingcrisisrepresents.IfyouallowI'dliketousetheexampleofIraq,whereIamcurrentlybasedastheHumanitarianCoordinator,tomakethispoint.Iraqisinmanywaysakindofdonororphan.Thedonorswhoarecontributinggenerouslytootheroperationsinthemiddleeast,byandlarge,havebeenhesitanttodothesameforIraq.Therearemanyreasonsforthis--whateverthemeritsofthesereasons,intheend,therearemorethan7millionIraqiswhodesperatelyneedhelpandaren'tgettingwhattheydeservebecausethefundingisn'tthere.Lastyear,thedonorsinsistedthattheIraqicountryteamprioritisewhatwasthenaUSD2billionappeal.Weweretoldthatifwedidn't,ouroperationwouldn'tbecredible.Soweprioritised.Itwasaverydifficultprocesswhichobligedustodosomethingnoneofuswantedtodo.RatherthancalculatingthecostsofprovidingassistancetomillionsofpeopleatSpherestandards,wewereforcedtoretrenchfromthestandardsandcalculatethecostsofmuchsmalleremergencypackagesforeachcluster.Thedifferencebetweentheemergencypackagesandthestandardsrepresentanethicalgap.Weexpected,ingoodfaith,thatatleasttheemergencypackageswouldbefunded.Theyweretosomedegree;butinfact,onlypartially.Weshouldmakenomistakeaboutthis--prioritisation,thestep-childofunder-funding,isnotaneutralprocess--itforcesustostepawayfromourcommitmenttoupholdinternationalstandards.Myownviewisthathumanitarianactiononlyreallymakessensewhenitisprincipled.Letsbefrank.Aprincipledresponsecostsmoney.Thishastocomefromsomewhere;humanitarianassistanceistooimportanttobevoluntary.Weneedtoconsideralloptionsincludingassessedcontributionsfrommemberstatesorfromtaxesimposedbymemberstatesonthesaleofgunsormaybeevencigarettes.Aprincipledapproachmeansweneedtoassessneedscollectively,onthebasisofanagreedmethodology,thencalculatethecostsofmeetingtheseneedsatSpherestandardsandusetheCoreHumanitarianStandardtoensureweareaccountabletopopulations.Anyotherapproach,honestly,isn'treallyethical.FranoisGrnewald,ExecutiveDirector,GroupeURD,FranceTheroadtothissideeventwasabumpyone.Therehasbeenmuchdebateovernearly20yearstogettotheCoreHumanitarianStandard.Ibelievecontextiseverything.Sohowcanwecapturecomplexitythroughstandards,orensureouractionsaccountforcontextsthatchangefromonedaytotheotherHowwillthingsthatarevalidtodaystillberelevantin5years.Justthinkabouttherathersuddenriseofcashor3Dprinting?ThegoodthingabouttheCoreHumanitarianStandardisthatisisnotatechnicalsolution,itsaboutaskingquestions.AtGroupeURD,welikebeingconfrontationalandasking(theright)questions.Attheendoftheday,weneedtoavoidjustcomingwitharecipebookandusingstandardsassuch.Accountingforcontextisnotaneasytaskanditrequiresmorethanabook.Itrequiresengagementwithlocalactorsifyoudontwanttoendupdoingbythebookthingsthataretotallystupid.EvenattheICRC,doctrineisrevisited.Revisitingourstandardsiswhatweshoulduseevaluationsfor.Wealsoneedtoacknowledgethatsometimes,wedontcomplywithstandardsbecauseofstaffingorsecurityissues.Weneedtoknowwhywecantmeetthestandardtofigureouthowtoimprove,andasthemigrantcrisisisshowingus,weneedtobeagiletoadapttoquicklychangingsituations.ThatswhyweneedtokeepaskingquestionssuchasthoseintheCoreHumanitarianStandard.