Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do. Goethe

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  • Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do. Goethe
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  • Clinical Skills Education Considerations on Why, What & How? Eugene C. Corbett, Jr., M.D., FACP Brodie Professor of Medicine Professor of Nursing University of Virginia Chair, AAMC Task Force on Clinical Skills Education
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  • Agenda What is skill learning? Knowledge versus skills education Why the emphasis on skills education now? Does curricular emphasis make a difference? How? AAMC Task Force recommendations Some examples of clinical skills teaching Some closing tips for skills teaching
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  • In skills education. .the accent is upon learner doing! .upon the application of knowledge and understanding to an intellectual, psychomotor or affective activity
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  • What is skill learning? Reflect on your own skill development Think of anyone (teacher, friend, family member) who has been most helpful to you in developing a skill that you are good at. What is the skill? What did they do to help you learn to do that skill?
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  • General Principles of Skills Teaching & Learning It has a clear and specific purpose It reinforces knowledge and understanding It must be demonstrated well An opportunity to try it out An opportunity to practice it Coaching (observation) and Useful evaluation and helpful feedback Emphasis upon self-directed initiative Guided by an explicit performance standard Guided by a high performance standard Confidence-building opportunity in direct patient care
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  • Knowledge Acquisition vs Skill Development DOMAINKNOWLEDGESKILL Teacher Rolelecturementor Activity Centerteacherlearner Learning Opportunity anytimelimited Learning Increment variable sizediscrete & well defined Assessment & Feedback: anytimeas soon as possible Settingalmost anywhereclinical/simulated Need for repetition:variablemandatory
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  • Why the emphasis on skills education? Patient care is an applied activity Performance emphasis is increasing at all levels of our professional activity Medical school skills education has been slipping We want better UME clinical performance outcomes
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  • Competency-based Clinical Performance Outcomes in Medical Education & Practice LCME: Medical Education Objectives and Documentation of Students ClinicalExperience USMLE Clinical Skills Examination AAMC: Students Clinical Skills Education ACGME Postgraduate competencies IOM: Medical Error in the caring process JCAHO: Hospital Performance Measures 3 rd Party Payers: Physician Pay-for-Performance
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  • Abraham Flexner On the pedagogic side, modern medicine, like all scientific teaching, is characterized by activity. The student no longer merely watches, listens, memorizes: he does. His own activities in the laboratory and in the clinic are the main factors in his instruction and discipline. An education in medicine nowadays involves both learning and learning how; the student cannot effectively know, unless he knows how. (1910)
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  • The Purpose of Undergraduate Medical Education to provide for the development of the knowledge, skills and values necessary to undertake the life-long responsibilities of a physician.
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  • UME Clinical Skills Education: (It looks weak!) It is not explicit in the curriculum It is variable within a school It is not standardized across schools It is not explicitly developmental over the 4 year curriculum It is only loosely connected to GME expectations
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  • Some AAMC Medical School Data: 1. Competency-based skill learning objectives26% 2. Any formal skills curricula52% 3. Skills curricula in clinical years13% 4. Explicit list of skills to be learned21% 5. Clinical skills education facility59% 6. Standardized patients/assessment65%
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  • UVA CLINICAL SKILLS SURVEY Student Self-estimate of Skill Performance (2003) Hepatic size & consistency77% Basic CPR73% Suture a Laceration72% Observe & interpret a Gallop65% Interpret spirometry62% Do a peak pulmonary flow52% Work with a reluctant nurse52% Phone: a swallowed penny45% Jugular venous pulsation38% Simple forearm cast 8%
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  • UVA Post-clerkship OSCE data ( 2006) Skill Score Above the MedianScore Below the Median Critical Action Correct Critical Action Incorrect Critical Action Correct Critical Action Incorrect Detect an Arrhythmia (n=45)17.8%13.3%20%48.9% Maintain Aseptic Technique (n=110) 1.8%46.4%0%51.8% Measure Blood Pressure (n=119) 35.3%10.1%28.6%26.0% Maintain Confidentiality (n=118) 22.0%0%4.3%73.7% Perform an ECG (n=26)3.8%42.3%0%53.9% Phone Triage an Infant with Fever (n=23) 26.1%21.7%0%52.2% Communicate Through an Interpreter (n=41) 4.9%21.9%9.8%63.4% Manage a Medical Error (n=46) 26.1%21.7%2.2%50.0% Examine Childs Ears (n=33)30.3%18.2%0%51.5% Auscultate the Second Heart Sound (n=33) 30.3%6.1%9.1%54.5%
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  • A 4 th Year Medical Student (2006) While in medical school we are continually encouraged to master a common body of knowledge, we are not as expected to master clinical skills. After reviewing my performance on videotape, I realize that I also have to master the skills of the patient encounter.
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  • Clinical Skills Education, Curricular Emphasis Does it make any difference in clinical learner performance outcomes??
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  • New Curriculum Old Curriculum Overall Score on 4th Year Clinical Skills Assessment # Students
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  • AAMC Task Force on Clinical Skills Education, a key consensus issue: How do we define basic clinical method? What are the essential clinical competencies for UME?? 2005, 2008
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  • Medical Education: begin with the end in mind Clinical Competency Domains = Medical Education Objectives
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  • 12 Clinical Competency Domains of Basic Clinical Method AAMC 2005 #1-3. Three competencies that students bring to medical school in varying degrees of development #4-8. The five elementary competencies #9-11. The 3 clinical management competencies #12. The most practical clinical competency
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  • Basic Clinical Method The 3 competencies that students bring in varying degrees of development to medical school: 1. Professionalism 2. Patient engagement & communication 3. Scientific knowledge & method
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  • Basic Clinical Method The 5 elementary competencies: 4. Clinical history-taking 5. Mental & physical examination 6. Clinical tests & imaging 7. Basic clinical procedures 8. Clinical information management
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  • Basic Clinical Method The 3 case management competencies: 9. Diagnosis & differential diagnosis {defining the clinical problem} 10. Clinical Intervention {caring for the clinical problem} 11. Clinical prognosis {anticipating and planning for future healthcare outcomes}
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  • AAMC 2005 The final universal clinical competency: 12. The ability to provide the patients care within the context of the patient and their preferences, family preferences, economic, cultural, ethical, legal, healthsystem, and societal preferences and constraints.
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  • ACGME 1999 1. Professionalism 2. Interpersonal & communication skills 3. Medical knowledge 4. Patient care 5. System-based practice 6. Practice-based learning & improvement
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  • ACGME for UME?? Patient Care Professionalism Interpersonal & communication skills Medical knowledge System-based practice Practice-based learning & improvement
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  • How? What are some examples of skills teaching?
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  • Some practical tips for clinical skills teaching Keep in mind the 12 domains of basic clinical method Specifically speaking, there are many basic clinical skills to teach and learn Choose to your strengths but add on some others Make it case-based if at all possible Please dont worry about being too basic Know your learners and what they can do In the clinical setting, delegate clinical task doing whenever you can Encourage others (including your residents) to do the same
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  • Some practical tips for clinical skills teaching Observe your learners more and give them performance feedback whenever you can Set up your expectations explicitly ahead of time! Encourage your patients to help out! Encourage yourself and your colleagues to lecture less and mentor more in the clinical setting Practice makes perfect at all levels Help set higher standards for clinical skills teaching and learning Make it fun!
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  • Organizing Clinical Skills Education By the spectrum of clinical care: Emergency care Acute care Critical care Chronic care Palliative & terminal care Wellness & preventive care Population Care