prostitution in nineteenth century manila (late spanish)
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- 1. She is the chairperson of the Departmentof History, College of Social Sciencesand Philosophy (CSSP) of the University ofthe Philippines. She obtained her doctorate de troisiemecycle at the Ecoledes Haustes Etudes onScience Sociales in Paris, France and haswritten numerous articles exploringvarious issues Philippine social history.
2. Her earlier publication, KasaysayangPanlipunan ng Manila (1765-1898) wonthe 1993 National Book Awards in thecategory of History. She is also the Director of the University ofthe Philippines (UP) Press. 3. This particular article talks about the LateSpanish period of Philippine History approximately in the 19th century. Itmentioned several documents dated onyear 1849. 4. Venereal diseases of 19th century Philippines Syphilis - A common venereal diseasecaused by the treponema pallidumspirochete; symptoms change throughprogressive stages; can be congenital(transmitted through the placenta) 5. Public awareness Advertisements of drugs for gonorrhea andsyphilis Medicines are available in drugstores (madein France)Arrests of Prostitutes Go far back as 1849 and even before. Deportation to Nueva Quipuzcua (Davao)and later to Isla de Balabac in Palawan. 6. Comisaria de Vigilancia and Carcel de Bilibid Runs thorough background check on allegedprostitutes. Runs health checks. If the alleged is infectedwith syphilis (and other venereal diseases), she isconfined at Hospital de San Juan de Diosinstead of Carcel de Bilibid. Punishments run from 10, 15, and 30 days, and/ordeportation. Most of the arrested (prostitutes) had previousapprehensions for estafa, illegalgambling, public disorder, and prostitution. Inside prison, they are subjected to hard labor. 7. Deportation Either Davao or Balabac Families petitions to the Governor General tospare family members accused ofprostitution from punishment of deportation. Mid 19th century, deportation was only forhabitual offenders 8. List of Deportees To Davao 9. List of Deportees To Balabac 10. Marriage Served to circumvent or avert deportation Means of reforming prostitutes.Social Profile of Prostitutes Most are in late teens or early twenties. Older prostitutes were married or widowed. Most have legitimate occupations(author suspects that the little income theyhave from these jobs drove them toprostitution) 11. Four categories:a) Under a prostitution houseb) Posted themselves in certain streetsc) Going to the homes of the clientsd) Renders services their own homes(author has questions on whether they wereseen obviously as prostitutes with theirappearances) 12. Popular Perception of Prostitutes Various names of prostitutes: prostituta,mujer publica, vagamunda, andindocumentada. Vagamunda reflected the roving lifestyle. Indocumentada because of inability toregister in a particular locality. 13. Conclusions of the Author Colonial authorities regulated prostitution tocheck the spread of venereal diseases andrespect public morals. Prostitution was viewed as livelihood bynatives. 14. Venereal diseases are rampant inareas of prostitution (denselypopulated areas) Reaction of family members about thepunishment of deportation shows theFilipino value of having close family ties. Low income drives women toprostitution. Southern regions of Philippines, whichare of lesser population are idealdeportation sites for prostitution. 15. It is important to have a historicalknowledge of how and why one of thesocial ills of Philippines (prostitution) haveexisted in the past and possibly postulatewhy it still continues to exist today.