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Rigaku designed the RIX Series to give engineersand scientists freedom in configuring the optimumsystem for their needs, from the simplest routine to the most complex analytical problem, at all budgetarylevels. Rigaku also designed this series to meet the in-creasing demands of high performance and flexi-bility for X-ray instrumentation, including sensitivity, speed of measurement, sample throughput, and sim-plicity.
The RIX Series of sequential WDXRF spectro-meters is the most comprehensive in the industry; it iscompletely supported by Rigaku, with its solidfoundation and commitment to expand productofferings. Sophisticated hardware and multitaskingsoftware combine to make the RIX Series the mostadvanced, fully automated X-ray spectrometer system available today.
The RIX3001 is based on the RIX3000, the mostpowerful and sophisticated of the RIX Series. TheRIX3001 was specifically designed with invertedoptics for customers who routinely analyze liquids or
loose powders and require minimal sample prepara-tion time.
The RIX3001 is a multi-purpose tool forperforming routine analysis of elements. Be throughU, as well as for fundamental research and develop-ment at the frontiers of science. The RIX3001 cananalyze light to heavy elements at ultra-high speedsand has numerous automated functions such asautomated aging of the X-ray tube and an automatedPC center wire cleaner. The RIX3001 is equipped forthree soller slits, ten-crystals, four primary beamfilters, and five area limiting diaphragms. This system can even be configured with dual target X-ray tubes.The sophisticated hardware of the RIX3001 results inhigh sensitivity and outstanding analytical precision.
The RIX3001 utilizes fourth generation RIXsoftware based on IBM's Warp Operating System.Consequently, it is a true 32 bit multi-tasking, multi-window software package. This sophisticated, yeteasy-to-use software easily integrates into othercommercially available host computers, network orLIMS systems.
The Rigaku Journal
Vol. 13/ number 2/ 1996
Fully Automated RIX3001X-ray Spectrometer
The many benefits of the RIX software includetime and cost saving operational features as well as avariety of analytical techniques for the diverse re-quirements of today's analysts. The analyticaltechniques include both qualitative and quantitativeprograms for bulk, medium-, thin-, and multilayer-film analysis. One of the unique features of the RIXSoftware is the Order Analysis Method, a simple andaccurate method for standardless analysis. High-speed scanning, a matching library, and corrections for theatmosphere and common impurities allow foraccurate analysis in as little as three minutes.
This powerful combination of sophisticatedRIX3001 hardware and multitasking software resultsin ever faster analysis combined with higher accuracy and precision.
1) Inverted optics
The RIX3001 is configured with the X-ray tubebelow the sample. This optics arrangement allows forsimple and quick sample preparation of loose pow-ders and liquids. Liquids or powders can easily bepoured into disposable sample cups and covered withdisposable films for analysis.
Vol. 13 No. 2 1996 43
Fig. 1 Flowchart of order analysis program.
The inverted optics configuration is known tohave the potential of liquids or powders falling ontothe X-ray tube and into the analytical chamber.However, great care was taken to protect the X-raytube and analytical chamber from potential accidentswith Beryllium windows that automatically covereach section when a helium path is chosen for theanalysis of a liquid or loose powder.
2) Order analysis method (Fig. 1)
a) High-speed Continuous Scan in Three MinutesA complete qualitative scan with semi-quantitativefundamental parameters analysis results can becompleted in three minutes with the Order AnalysisMethod. In addition, Rigaku's unique double vacuumsystem permits pumping for the next sample whilemeasurement of another sample is underway. Thiscontributes to overall high-speed qualitative analysis.
b) Matching (Individual) Library The OrderAnalysis Method provides a Matching (Individual)Library that can be added to the current Common(Standard) Library. The Common Library containspure elements and compounds, while the MatchingLibrary is one that contains the users own standardsamples. When an unknown sample is analyzed, semi-quantitative analysis is first performed with theCommon Library, followed by an automatic search ofthe Matching Library of any reference materialswhich is closer in composition to the unknownsample. The results are then recalculated using thatlibrary. Consequently, even samples containingultralight elements can be analyzed with a higherdegree of accuracy.
c) Atmosphere & Impurity Corrections Once thestandards are measured under vacuum and put into the libraries, the Order Analysis Method allows theoperator to specify if a measurement is being madeunder vacuum or Helium at the time of analysis. Thesoftware will then correct for X-ray absorptionautomatically according to the atmosphere specified.
Trace contaminants are found in polymer filmsused to cover liquid or powder sample cups, in fusingagents used in glass bead manufacture, and in filterpaper used when concentrating liquid samples. TheOrder Analysis Method software contains a functionthat will correct for these types of impurities.
3) Selection of optimum X-ray tube
A choice of X-ray tubes is available to satisfytoday's diverse needs. X-ray tubes available include astandard 3 kW Rh target tube, a high-power 4 kW tube (combined with a high-frequency X-ray generator),and a dual-target tube featuring better sensitivity forthe intermediate elements, Ti through Cl. Analysiscan be made over a wider range of elements withoutthe time-consuming need of installing different X-raytubes when the switchable dual target X-ray tube,which allows the exchange of two kinds of targetmaterials, is used. (Table 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3)
44 The Rigaku Journal
Table 1 Features of different X-ray tubes
Type ofXray tube
Standard RhX-ray tube
The development of this vertical X-ray tube in early 1970 superseded thecommon horizontal X-ray tube, leading to a substantial improvement ofsensitivity for light elements. Over the last 25 years, this vertical type tube hasbeen used as the optimum X-ray tube for analysis over a wide elemental range,from light to heavy elements.
Dual targetX-ray tube
A single X-ray tube is equipped with two kinds of targets, e.g., Rh/Cr or Rh/W,for analyses that require measurement of an element region where the sensitivity of the Rh target is insufficient.
Ultratube UTX-ray tube
An Rh X-ray tube designed to improve further the sensitivity for light elements.
4 kW Rh X-ray tube
This tube enables up to 4 kW of power. This tube improves sensitivity over theentire elemental region.
4)Easy-to-understand operational screen
An illustrative screen enables the operator toevaluate the status of the entire spectrometer at aglance. Even the novice can easily evaluate the status.
Vol. 13 No. 2 1996 45
Fig. 3 Sensitivity of Rh/Cr dual X-ray tube.
Applications and typical examples are listed.
Figure 4 shows the RIX3001 system configu-ration. When a sample is irradiated with a beam of
primary X-rays, secondary X-rays, or fluorescent X-rays, are induced. The wavelengths of these fluores-cent X-rays are characteristic of the elements in thesample. The fluorescent X-rays are then dispersed by
46 The Rigaku Journal
Fig. 4 Hardware configuration.
LSI, memory disk, CRT parts, magnetic material, hydrogenstorage alloy
Catalyst, polymer, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, pigments,paint, oil and fat, detergent, cosmetics
Ceramics Silicon nitride, alumina, glass, firebrick, enamel, cement
SteelSpecial steel, surface treated steel plate, ferro alloy, cast iron, cast steel, iron ore, plating fluid
Aluminum can material, shape memory alloy, copper alloy,precious metal, Ni alloy, solder, plating fluid
Mining Ore, rock, volcanic ash
Grease, lubricant, cutting oil, kerosene, heavy oil
EnvironmentWaste water, seawater, river water, air-borne dust, industrialwastes
Other Soil, rock, plant, organism, food
an analyzing crystal and detected with a ScintillationCounter or a Flow-Proportional Counter.
The fluorescent X-rays have an intensity that isproportional to the number of excited atoms of thegiven element. For quantitative analysis, the intensityof a given element is measured at its fixed spectralangle.
A microcomputer controls sample placement,goniometer movements, and the operation of thecounting circuits, while a personal computer handlesthe data analysis and presentation.
4.2 Data Processing Software
Many functions are incorporated in the RIX3001data processing software, as shown in Figure 5. Thesefunctions meet the diverse analytical needs for routine
analysis as well as for research and developmentanalysis.
Operational features include PC control of kVand mA, automated power on and power down of kVand mA, automated PHA adjustments, and peak angle updates. Repetitive analysis procedures can beprogrammed into Batch files. Unique preparation andadjustment software allows 20 and PHA scans of each element to be measured in a group for easy setup ofmeasuring conditions. The Progr