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Preparation of Synthetic Fuels by Underground Coal Gasification

Preparation of Synthetic Fuels by Underground Coal GasificationPakistan Engineering Students FestivalSociety of Polymer and Petrochemical EngineersNED university Karachi


Faculty IntroductionSupervisor:Engr. Abdul Waheed BhuttoChairman Department of Chemical EngineeringDawood University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi.

Group Representor:Muhammad Zeeshan

Members:Syed Saqib Ali ZaidiMuhammad Tajmeel FerozeMuhammad Ali MemonMuhammad Yousuf Memon Dawood University of Engineering and Technology Karachi

Pakistan Oil Consumption

Pakistan consumes 371 thousand Bbl. of Oil per day.35% of Pakistan's energy Demand provides by Oil.90 % is utilized for Transportation.Its Demand is Growing day by day due to Rapid Growth in vehicle Ownership.

Oil ResourcesPakistan has 310 millions Bbl. proven oil reserves.Currently produces 67 thousand BPD.Pakistan's oil and gas reserves are not enough to achieve self sufficiency in this sector. In oil sector Pakistan depends on foreign sources of oil and Imports 80 % oil of its consumption.

Alternative Liquid FuelsIn current conditions Pakistan need to look forward alternate oilsources. Alternate liquid fuels can be produced from:

BiomassNatural GasCoal

Pakistan Coal Reserves

BALOCHISTAN217(million tons)SINDH184,623(million tons)PUNJAB235(million tons)KPK91(million tons)AJK09(million tons)

Coal PotentialCoal reserves of Pakistan can help balance his future dependence of Oil.Thar coal contains 175 billion tons of Lignite B to sub-bituminous A, which is most suitable for UCG.High quality sulfur free gasoline and low mass olefins can be prepared by Thar coal.Chemical Analysis of Thar coal

Coal To Liquid ConversionThar coal can be converted into liquid fuels by using two combine steps:

Underground Gasification.Catalytical Condensation.

Coal derived fuels are ultra clean, sulfur free with low level of COx & NOx.

ProcessUndergroundGasificationSynthetic gasCleaning &ConditioningFischer TropschSynthesisRefiningFinal Product

Economical StrengthCapacity(10,000 bpd @ 85% availability)Capital cost(750 million dollars)Operating + Raw material cost(123 million dollars per year)NPV(116 million dollars @ 20% discount rates)Consumer profit(~ 500 dollars per year @ average mile age)

ConclusionIn the current situation of Pakistan as it is facing energy crisis in power sector and depends on foreign sources of oil while having vast amount of coal in its reserves. This technology is a viable option to offset its future dependence on foreign sources of oil and gas.


BlocksWeighted Average Chemical Analyses of Thar CoalAs Received values (%)Heating Values (BTU/lb)MoistureAshVolatile MatterFixed CarbonSulphurAs RcvdDryI43.136.5330.1120.110.926,39810,461II48.895.2126.5519.371..055,78011,353III45.416.1428.5119.561.125,87510,880III-B47.729.3024.4916.791.154,808-IV43.246.5629.0421.131.205,97110,723V36.828.9238.2428.221.204,748-VI38.327.6236.2230.131.5210,514-VII48.278.0325.3019.561.165,441-VII49.577.7824.3218.101.445,302-

Underground Coal GasificationDrilling Technology:Controlled Retractable Injection Point(CRIP)

Process:Two Phase(Steam & Air) gasification

Product:Water gas (CO+H2)

Underground Coal Gasification

Synthetic Gas Cleaning & ConditioningCleaning:(Removal of steam, solid particles, sulfur and nitrogen compounds and CO2)Conditioning:(Maintain H2:CO ratio for fischer tropsch process. A H2:CO > 2 is ideal)

Fischer TropschTechnology(Iron based High Temperature Fischer Tropsch)Reactor(Fixed Fluidized Bed)Catalyst(Fused Iron)Products(Gasoline with low mass Olefins)

RefiningHTFT reactor mixture contains hydrocarbons ranging C1 to C20 which may be separate out by simple atmospheric pressure fractional distillation.


Low mass Olefins

Fischer Tropsch Wax


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