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INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA KULIYYAH OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN

History of Art and DesignLyana binti Karim 1012998 21/09/2010

Table of Contents1. Definition of Art 2. Development of Art i. Prehistoric a. Paleolithic b. Mesolithic c. Neolithic ii. iii. Mesopotamian Art Egypt Art

iv.

Aegean Art a. Cycladic b. Minoan c. Mycenaean Greek Art Persian Art

v. vi.

vii.

Roman Art

Definition of ArtArt has long been considered as a skill, dexterity, or the power of performing certain actions in manner that affects the sense of beauty. Based on Aristotle, a Greek artists, theory, art is concern with mimesis (imitation), the presentation of appearance, and gives pleasure through the accuracy and skills with which it depict the real world. In simple word, it means the human effort to imitate, supplement alter, or counteract the work of nature. Popularly, the term is most commonly used to refer the visual art. Basically, there are many classifications of art such as fine art, performing art, decorating art, and also graphic art. Fine arts, is a type of art primarily created for the purpose of providing beauty and enjoyment rather than commercial use. It is often intended to be uplifting, though provoking, and life-enhancing for instance, painting, sculpture, architecture, poetry, and other fine writing.

Prehistoric Art Paleolithic (2 million years ago-13,000 BC.)Paleolithic or "Old Stone Age" is a term used to define the oldest period in the human history. The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic - lit. old stone from the Greek paleos=old and lithos=stone. It began about 2 million years ago, from the use of first stone tools and ended of the Pleistocene epoch, with the close of the last ice age about 13,000 BC. Subdivisions of the Paleolithic include the: Lower Paleolithic (Oldowan, Clactonian, Abbevillian, Acheulean), Middle Paleolithic, the time of the hand axe-industries (Mousterian) and Upper Paleolithic (Chtelperronian, Aurignacian, Solutrean, Gravettian, Magdalenian). The Paleolithic is followed by the Mesolithic or Epipaleolithic. The Lower spans the time from around 4 million years ago when the first humans appear in the archaeological record, to around 120,000 years ago when important evolutionary and technological changes ushered in the Middle Palaeolithic. In Europe and Africa the Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the period of the early Stone Age that lasted between around 120,000 and 40,000 years ago. It was the time when early humans gained increasing control over their surroundings and later saw the emergence of modern humans around 100,000 years ago. Stone tool manufacturing developed a more sophisticated tool making technique which permitted the creation of more controlled and consistent flakes. Hunting provided the primary food source but people also began to exploit shellfish and may have begun smoking and drying meat to preserve it. This would have required a mastery of fire and some sites indicate that plant resources were managed through

selective burning of wide areas. Artistic expression emerged for the first time with ochre used as body paint and some early rock art appearing. There is also some evidence of purposeful burial of the dead which may indicate religious and ritual behaviors. The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. Very broadly it dates to between 40,000 and 8,500 years ago. Modern humans, who had begun migrating out of Africa during the Middle Paleolithic period, began to produce regionally distinctive cultures during the Upper Paleolithic period. The earliest remains of organized settlements in the form of campsites, some with storage pits, are encountered in the archaeological record. Some sites may have been occupied year round though more generally they seem to have been used seasonally with peoples moving between them to exploit different food sources at different times of the year. Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing with industries based on fine blades rather than cruder flakes. The reasons for these changes in human behavior have been attributed to the changes in climate during the period which encompasses a number of global temperature drops. Artistic work also blossomed with Venus figurines and exotic raw materials found far from their sources suggest emergent trading links.

Paleolithic Art, produced from about 32,000 to 11,000 years ago, falls into two main categories: Portable Pieces (small figurines or decorated objects carved out of bone, stone, or modeled in clay), and Cave Art.

Portable Pieces y Venus Willendorf

of

Cave Art y Altamira

y

Statuettes Kostienki

from

y

Lascaux

y

y

y

"The lady in a hood"Brassempouy Venus figures from the Stone Age Upper Paleolithic Female Figurines

y y y y y

Barnfield Pit Baile Herculane Krapina Aurignac Meiendorf, Hamburgian Culture

Prehistoric Art - Mesolithic / Archaic (10,000 - 5,000 BC)

The Mesolithic is the period of middle Stone Age, from about 10,000 - 5,000 BC years ago. It corresponds to period of primarily nomadic hunting and gathering which preceded the adoption of domesticated plants and animals. The term Mesolithic is used to characterize that period in Europe and, sometimes, parts of Africa and Asia. That stage is usually called the Archaic in the Americas and in the rest of the world; it's usually characterized by Microliths.

This was a period when humans developed new techniques of stone working. At that time, people stayed longer in one place and gave increased attention to the domestication. There is a gap in the artistic activity of people of that epoch. Most of what has survived from the Mesolithic era is small statuette size works and paintings in shallow shelter caves. The rich art of the Paleolithic is replaced by a Mesolithic art that is quite different. There are many changes in style as well as meaning. Upper Paleolithic cave art depicts colored drawings and expressive features of animals. A full range of color is used. Mesolithic art in contrast is schematic; no realistic figures are present and only the color red is used. This form is also found in North Africa and the northern Mediterranean. Depictions in the open air - Gobustan, Azerbaidzan - Zaraut-Kamar, Uzbekistan - Kamennaya Mogila - Bhimbetka, India Architecture & Sculpture - Lepenski Vir, Serbia - Europe's First Monumental Sculpture Archeological Sites - Lepenski Vir, Serbia - Jericho in the West Bank - Star Carr, England - Mount Sandel, Ireland - Skara Brae, Britain's Orkney Islands

Prehistoric Art Neolithic (10,000 - 5,000 BC)

The Neolithic period, also called New Stone Age, began when men first developed agriculture and settled in permanent villages. It ended with the discovery of bronze. The prime medium of Neolithic art was pottery. Other important artistic expressions were statuary of the universally worshiped monuments. Mother Goddess and megalithic stone

Free standing sculpture had already begun by the Neolithic, the earliest being the anthropomorphic figurines, often embellished by animals from the very beginning of the Neolithic discovered in Nevali Cori and Gbekli Tepe near Urfa in eastern Turkey, dating to ca. 10th millennium BC. The mesolithic statues of Lepenski Vir at the Iron Gorge, Serbia and Montenegro date to the 7th millennium BC and represent either humans or mixtures of humans and fish. In Central Europe, many Neolithic cultures, like Linearbandkeramic, Lengyel and Vinca, produced female (rarely male) and animal statues that can be called art. Whether the elaborate pottery decoration of, for example, the style are to be classified as art is a matter of definition. Megalithic monuments are found in the Neolithic from Spain to the British Isles and Poland. They start in the 5th Millennium BC, though some authors speculate on eliesovce and painted Lengyel

Mesolithic roots. Because of frequent reuse, this is difficult to prove. While the most well-known of these is Stonehenge, were the main structures date from the early Bronze age, such monuments have been found throughout most of Western and Northern Europe, notably at Carnac, France, at Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands, in Portugal, and in Wiltshire, England, the area of Stonehenge, the Avebury circle, the tombs at West Kennet, and Woodhenge. One tomb found in New Grange, Ireland, has its entrance marked with a massive stone carved with a complex design of spirals. The tomb of Knowth has rock-cut ornaments as well. Many of these monuments were megalithic tombs, and archaeologists speculate that most have religious significance.

Megaliths - Stonehenge, UK - Dispilio, Greece - Vinca, Serbia - Oslonski, Poland - Franchthi Cave - atal Hyk, Turky

Ancient Art Mesopotamia (9000 - 500 B.C)This is the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers which roughly comprises modern Iraq and part of Syria. The most ancient civilizations known to man first developed there writing, schools, libraries, written law codes, agriculture, irrigation, farming and moved us from prehistory to history. It's giving Mesopotamia the reputation of being the cradle of civilization. The name does not refer to any particular civilization using that name. It includs non-Semitic Sumerians, followed by the Semitic Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. Over the course of 4000 years, the art of Mesopotamia reveals a tradition that appears, homogeneous in style and iconography. Art became decorative, stylized and conventionalized at different times and places. Gods took on human forms and humans were combined with animals to make fantastic creatures. L