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  • Personality development in juvenile delinquents

    Eindhoven, 20.04.2017

    Klaus Schmeck

    Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital Psychiatric University Hospitals Basel / Switzerland

  • Personality development

    Personality is codetermined by

    › genetic and constitutional dispositions, on the one hand,

    and

    › interaction of the individual with environmental,

    particularly psychosocial, features in the course of

    psychological development, on the other.” (Kernberg, 2016)

    Personality development is a transactional process.

    | 2 26. April 2017 Universitäre Psychiatrische Kliniken Basel | www.upkbs.ch |

  • Person-Environment-Transactions (Schneewind, 2005)

    › Reactive Person-Environment-Transactions different individuals react differently to the same environment

    (e.g. attributional bias of conduct disordered children)

    › Evocative Person-Environment-Transactions specific personality traits or behaviours evoke certain reactions

    in other people (e.g. parental reaction towards children with difficult temperament)

    › Proactive Person-Environment-Transactions individuals choose their environment and have an impact on it (e.g. choice of friends, partner, profession, leisure activities etc.)

    | 3 26. April 2017 Universitäre Psychiatrische Kliniken Basel | www.upkbs.ch |

  • Cloninger‘s biopsychosocial model of personality

    Personality

    Temperament Character

     automatic emotional reactions

    (activation, inhibition and

    maintenance of behavior),

    „style” of behavior

     Self concepts, goals and values, that

    influence the ability to adapt to

    oneself and the social environment

     (Neuro-) biologically based, stable

    dispositions, „heterotype continuity“

     continuos development by

    sociocultural learning

     modulated by character

    development  is based on temperament

     basis of personality ...

     ... what is made out of it

  • Four Temperament Dimensions Three Character Dimensions

    Novelty Seeking

    Exploratory Excitability, Impulsiveness,

    Extravagance, Disorderliness

    Self Directedness

    Responsibility, Purposefulness,

    Resourcefulness, Self-Acceptance

    Harm Avoidance

    Fear of uncertainty, Anticipatory worry,

    Shyness, Fatigability

    Cooperativeness

    Social acceptance, Empathy, Helpfulness,

    Compassion, Pure-hearted Conscience

    Reward Dependence

    Sensitivity, Openness to warm

    communication, Attachment, Dependence

    Self-Transcendence

    Self-forgetful, Transpersonal Identification,

    Spiritual Acceptance

    Persistence

    Eagerness of effort, Ambitious, Perfectionist

    Cloninger‘s biopsychosocial model of personality

  • Cloninger‘ s concept of personality development

    P

    high

    CO

    high

    SD

    high

    influence of temperament on character development

    („-“ = decrease / „+“ = increase of “mature“ character development)

    “mature“

    character

    development +

    -

    +

    -

    RD

    high

    HA

    high

    NS

    high

    education /

    psychosocial influences

    Self Directedness

    Responsibility

    Purposefulness

    Resourcefulness

    Self-Acceptance

    Cooperativeness

    Social acceptance

    Empathy

    Helpfulness

    Compassion

    Conscience

  • Influence of temperament on character development

    harm avoidance

    highmediumlow

    m e a n o

    f S

    D _ T

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    novelty seeking

    low

    medium

    high

    37

    44

    50

    42

    49

    57

    44

    53

    59

    persistence

    highmediumlow

    m e a n o

    f S

    D _ T

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    reward dep.

    low

    medium

    high

    59

    50

    47

    53

    48

    45

    48

    43

    38

    School Sample

    350 boys, 356 girls

    Schmeck (2001)

  • Personality and psychosocial adversity

    AchseV-Lifetime-Belastung

    >85-81-4,00

    M itt

    e lw

    e rt

    N V

    _ T

    60,0

    55,0

    50,0

    45,0

    40,0

    53,6

    52,3

    48,8

    45,7

    AchseV-Lifetime-Belastung

    >85-81-4,00

    M itt

    e lw

    e rt

    S V

    _ T

    60,0

    55,0

    50,0

    45,0

    40,0

    59,1

    53,053,2

    52,0

    Novelty Seeking Harm Avoidance

    AchseV-Lifetime-Belastung

    >85-81-4,00

    M itt

    e lw

    e rt

    S L

    _ T

    60,0

    55,0

    50,0

    45,0

    40,0

    35,0

    38,3

    45,4

    48,7

    50,6

    Self-Directedness

  • Correlations of JTCI personality dimensions with SDQ

    Emotional Problems

    (internalizing) Behaviour Problems

    (externalizing) Total Problem Score

    JTCI

    3-6

    JTCI

    7-11

    JTCI

    12-18

    JTCI

    3-6

    JTCI

    7-11

    JTCI

    12-18

    JTCI

    3-6

    JTCI

    7-11

    JTCI

    12-18

    NS .14 .19 -.06 .53 .59 .46 .69 .47 .27

    HA .70 .52 .62 .10 -.03 .02 .35 .19 .46

    RD .13 .02 .07 -.11 -.02 -.09 -.09 .00 -.13

    P -.19 -.12 -.19 -.30 -.27 -.32 -.47 -.45 -.44

    SD -.48 -.44 -.58 -.17 -.36 -.27 -.55 -.58 -.62

    CO -.04 -.32 .08 -.60 -.66 -.43 -.58 -.57 -.30

    ST -.05 .04 .23 .07 -.04 .02 -.06 -.03 .14

    NS = novelty seeking, HA = harm avoidance, RD = reward dependence, P = persistence, SD = self directedness, CO = cooperativeness, ST = self transcendence

    JTCI 3-6 (n=124) JTCI 7-11 (n=105) und JTCI 12-18 R (n=115) Goth et al. (2009)

  • Temperament and the development of

    externalizing disorders

    Low social

    responsiveness

    externalizing

    disorders

    Impaired acceptance of

    societal norms and rules decreased

    behavioral control

    Strong behavioral

    activation

  • Level of aggressive and delinquent behavior (YSR)

    by Novelty Seeking (NS) and Reward Dependence (RD)

    NVbaNVBAnvbanvBA

    M itt

    el w

    er t

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    Dissozialität

    Aggressivität

    p

  • Samples and study-instruments

    Samples:

    • Community sample (N = 840, 12-18y.; 480 boys, 360 girls)

    • MAZ-project in Swiss juvenile justice institutions (N = 592; 402 boys,

    190 girls)

    Instruments:

    • Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) – Self report Questionnaire

    (50 Items to assess the three factor model of psychopathy)

    • Self reported delinquency (Boers & Reinecke, 2007)

  • YPI to assess psychopathy in adolescents (Andershed et al. 2002; German version Schmeck et al. 2005)

    Dishonest Charm

    Grandiosity

    Lying

    Manipulation

    Interpersonal

    (grandiose, manipulative)

    Remorselessness

    Unemotionality

    Callousness

    Affective

    (callous, unemotional)

    Impulsiveness

    Thrill-Seeking

    Irresponsibility

    Behavioral

    (impulsive, irresponsible)

  • 26.04.2017 Universitäre Psychiatrische Kliniken Basel | www.upkbs.ch | 14

    Description of the samples

    Institutions, gender, age, country of birth

    Residential care N=592

    School N=894

    Data collection 2007 – 2011 2007 – 2009

    Institutions 64 17

    Male 402 (67.9%) 508 (56.8%)

    Female 190 (32.1%) 386 (43.2%)

    Age range 5.2 – 26.8 10.9 – 22.5

    Mean age (SD) 15.9 (3.0) 17.6 (1.7)

    Born in Switzerland 484 (81.8%) 763 (85.3%)

  • YPI and Delinquency in Males

    5

    7.5

    10

    12.5

    15

    Interpersonal

    Affective

    Behavioral

    Total Score

    no offence (n=21)

    low-level offence (n=24)

    moderate offence (n=25)

    severe offence l.v. (n=76)

    severe offence h.v. (n=76)

    P < 0,01 = **

    P < 0,05 = *

    N = 222

    Mean

    ** **

    **

    **

  • YPI and Delinquency in Females

    5

    7.5

    10

    12.5

    15

    Interpersonal

    Affective

    Behavioral

    Total Score

    no offence (n=11)

    low-level offence (n=13)

    moderate offence (n=19)

    severe offence l.v. (n=24)

    severe offence h.v. (n=11)

    P < 0,01 = **

    P < 0,05 = *

    Mean

    **

    **

    **

  • 26.04.2017 Universitäre Psychiatrische Kliniken Basel | www.upkbs.ch | 17

    0%

    5

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