part 3: regional case studies. west africa west africa: an introduction west africa savannahforest

Download Part 3: Regional Case Studies. West Africa West Africa: An Introduction West Africa SavannahForest

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Part 3: Regional Case Studies Slide 2 West Africa Slide 3 West Africa: An Introduction West Africa SavannahForest Slide 4 Savannah region Savannah groups in contact with each other through empires Musico-cultural similarities throughout the Savannah regions Some influence from North Africa, Islam Savannah Western Sudanic Central Sudanic Voltaic Slide 5 Savannah regions other general traits Social organization involved professional class of musicians (i.e., griot, dyeli, jali) All classes of instruments, though some areas have primarily membranophone instruments Contexts include: Ceremonial music Praise singing Religious rites Slide 6 Forest Belt Eastern Forest Western Forest Far more differentiation, less homogeneity in forest belt Secret societies important Percussive instruments with complex rhythms predominant musical trait Elaborate traditions of court music and masquerade Slide 7 Yoruba Popular Music Slide 8 The Yoruba Live in Nigeria, Benin Republic, and Togo Lagos center of Yoruba popular culture Yoruba is a tonal language Slide 9 Yoruba Popular Musical Identity The dndn (talking drum) a symbol of pan- Yoruba identity Mixture of global and local Instruments & ensembles organized with lead (mother) and accompaniment, hierarchy Instruments speak, like language Spraying provides most income for popular musicians Slide 10 Muslim genres Wk Spiritual inspiration, female performers Unaccompanied, hand-clapping Skr Instrument, genre, and dance style Solemn, social dancing and praising pl Lyrics are essentially praise songs Social dance drumming style Slide 11 Yoruba Highlife Ghanaian highlife bands performed in Lagos, spread popularity 3-5 winds, string bass, guitar, bongos, maracas, conga Bobby Bensons Jam Session Orchestra Worked in England First electric guitar in Nigeria 1950s was Golden Age Slide 12 Jj Emerged in early 1930s Named for tambourine (jj) Built on palm wine guitar music Rhythm from dance drumming style Trio (singer + banjo, tambourine, gourd rattle) Slide 13 Jj Early styles High tessitura, nasal style Metaphorical lyrics Tunde King 1940s changes included: Amplification Expanded instruments, conga-type drums Slower tempos Slide 14 King Sunny Ad The Green Spot Band, 1966 Style modeled after Tunde Nightingale Patron was Chief Bolarinwa Abioro Known for skilled guitar playing After 1972 split from Abioro, formed African Beats band Became a major international star Slide 15 Afro-Beat Began in late 60s as mixture of highlife, jazz, and soul Basic style is 3 layers: Interlocking electric-bass and bass drum Rhythm guitar, congas, snare back beat Percussion sticks and gourd rattle, horn sections supports singer Slide 16 Fela Anikulapo Kuto, 1938 - Studied trumpet in London Played with Bobby Benson Late 1960s influence of soul (from Geraldo Pino) Travel to US in 1969 led to more activism Run-ins with military, song lyrics political Mother killed by military Slogan was Music is a Weapon Slide 17 Fj Grew out of Muslim Ramadan tradition Features drums Syncretic style (highlife, American pop, Muslim recitations, Christian hymns, jj) Slide 18 "The Tradition" and Identity in a Diversifying Context Slide 19 Ivory Coast Petit Gbapleu = (old Dan village) City of Man = (growing, modern city, primarily Muslim Ivory Coast Slide 20 Ge (genu=plural) An institution that serves as base of Dan religious, social, and political life Provides a sense of ethnic identity Involves performance of forest spirits, sometimes as masked dancers Slide 21 Dan religion and Islam Many residents of Petit Gbapleu are Muslim, do not believe in worship of two Gods But many still practice Dan, blend the two (syncretic practice) Slide 22 PDCI Party for the Hairdressers PDCI was leading political party at the time Held a party for hairdressers, as political move Ge masked dancer performed, along with master drummer Ge and drummer incorporated popular music elements, also non-local traditional elements Slide 23 Creolization Karin Barber, Christopher Waterman Creolization is what happens when local selectively appropriate elements from metropolitan cultures in order to construct their own hybrid medium in which to articulate their own, historically and socially specific, experience. Slide 24 Creolization Advantages of this theory: 1. People seen as active cultural producers 2. Something qualitatively new, not just dilution or corruption of authentic forms 3. Function & significance determined by specific new context Slide 25 North Africa Slide 26 Population consists of Arabs, Berbers, Gnawa Historic conquest by Romans, Scandinavian tribes, Christian Byzantines, & Muslims Cultural area includes Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, parts of Mali and Niger Slide 27 Arab-Andalusian Tradition Influence from Spain to Africa Original repertoire was nuba (suite of songs) Modal Oral-poetic Slide 28 Music and Islam Call to prayers, Koranic chant not considered music Religious songs during Ramadan Sufi chants Curing ceremonies Slide 29 Music in folk life Annual, calendric celebrations Life-cycle events Professional musicians (griots) Sung poetry Instrumental music rare Many forms of dance (even with camels) Slide 30 Popular music Genres Tahardent Rai azri Arab-Andalusian Arabi Hawzi Shabi zendani Slide 31 Tuareg Music Slide 32 Tuareg Tuareg society consists of 8 large units or confederations Culturally diverse Nomadic tribes Slide 33 Music Mostly vocal, but various drums & flutes Primary instruments are anzad, tende, and tahardent Prominent position in everyday life Verbal genres highly esteemed Dance includes camel dances Slide 34 Anzad One-string lute-like instrument Played only by women Heroism, courage, love are subject matters Solo instrument or vocal accompaniment Many regional variations Takes years to master Slide 35 Tende Mortar drum Central to camel festivals & curing ceremonies Not as much status Slide 36 Tahardent 3-stringed lute Compositional formulas Urban genre for entertainment Slide 37 From Village to Vinyl: Genealogies of New Kabyle Song Slide 38 A vava inouva Algerian song by Idir, text by Ben Mohamed Important for Kabyle Berbers Based on traditional song internal gaze Slide 39 Authenticity vs. modernity Authenticity came from the Kabyles, modernity could only come from the State. Slide 40 Internal Gaze Internal Gaze is accomplished by.. Stylization Folkloric time Process of story-telling put on display Slide 41 Transmission Played in France, towards French audiences Translated to many languages Tapes & cassettes in Algeria Transmission of the song made Berber culture desirable Slide 42 East Africa Slide 43 East Africa An Introduction Nomadic, semi-nomadic and settled groups Indonesian influences Arabic & Islamic influences European influences Slide 44 Music of Tanzania Slide 45 Tanzania Least urbanized African country Mainly Bantu-speaking people Swahili spoken w/English 1964 United Republic of Tanzania TanganyikaZanzibar Slide 46 Music in Tanzania 8 stylistic areas Membranophones include royal drum sets Untuned & tuned idiophones Range of chordophones and aerophones Slide 47 Forms (neotraditional) Beni ngoma Taraab National training centers Jazz Slide 48 Music and the Construction of Identity Among the Abayudaya (Jewish People) of Uganda Slide 49 Abayudaya Jews Converted to Judaism in 1920s, interruption by Idi Amin, revival in 1980s Only about 750 people in Eastern Uganda Primarily 5 Bantu ethnic/language groups Slide 50 Boundaries Boundary-leveling strategies for Local ethnic groups North American Jewry Boundary-maintaining strategies for Christian and Muslim neighbors Slide 51 Boundary Maintaining Strategies Adding a Hebrew verse Jewish leaders adapt local folk songs Contemporary music contains Hebrew text, subject matter Lekhah Dodi Hebrew pronunciation influenced by local language Slide 52 Central Africa Slide 53 Central Africa is not a geographic fact, but a concept Slide 54 Central Africa For this chapter defined as people speaking Adamawa-Eastern languages Bantu languages Slide 55 Adamawa-Eastern language groups Musical traits include: Tonal systems Part-singing Patterns of movement Instrumental resources Slide 56 Bantu language groups Pygmy Yodeling Polyphony Several other diverse cultural groups Slide 57 Musical Life in the Central African Republic Slide 58 Music in Central African Republic Performances of modernity = how people situate themselves within a changing world Slide 59 Performances of modernity Zokela are musicians who play and sing in a vigorous style based on multiethnic rhythms, harmonies, melodies, and topical themes from the Lobaye Alleged origins in 1981 Now tending towards spectacle Local international Slide 60 BaAka dances Mabo Rhythm is a triplet pattern At least 2 drums accompany Dingboku Womens dance Stand shoulder to shoulder in line Both dances stopped because of Christian missionary work, but later recontextualized Slide 61 Southern Africa Slide 62 Politics, Economics, Languages, and cultural traits all determine how to define southern Africa For this paper, includes southern tip up to the Zambezi river Slide 63 Southern Africa cultural groups Much overlap in these groups Khoisan (i.e., Khoikoi, San) Nguni (i.e, Xhosa, Zulu, Swazi) Sotho S.E. African (i.e., Shona, Venda, Chopi, Tsonga, Sena) Middle Zambezi (Lozi, Nyoka, Ila, Tonga) S.W. Bantu (Ovimbundu, Ovambo, Nkhumbi, Herero) Slide 64 Indigenous music: Musical / Cultural traits Prominent use of polyrhythms Linguistic influence on melody Secondary sound source (rattling/buzzing) Cyclic form Drums, plucked lamellophones, xylophones, musical bows Music defined with metered rhythm Slide 65 Indigenous music - Issues Tuning systems: reasons? Influences: tonal-harmonic belt? Influences: Indonesian? Instruments: mbira origins? Slide 66 Impact of Wider World Mining Apartheid Mis