pak india water issue

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Pak - india water conflict introduction dams indus water treaty kishanganga dam


  • BACKGROUND The twentieth century British poet WH Auden, once said, Thousands have lived without love, not one without water. His words are especially relevant in the context of South Asia, which is home to more than a fifth of the worlds population and where the economies are largely dependent upon agriculture
  • Unfortunately, South Asian countries, particularly India and Pakistan, have both faced challenges in water management and proper river basin management. The consequence of this has been a severe water crisis, which has a bearing on both ground and surface water. A cursory glance at the data on fresh water availability per person, per year reveals this vulnerability. South Asias renewable freshwater resources are about 1,200 cubic meters per capita. In comparison, a large number of countries have between 2,500 15,000 cubic meters per capita. Some like Canada and Norway have over 70,000 cubic meters per capita.
  • The water of Indus basin begin in chines Tibet and the Himalayan mountain in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. They flow from the hills through the arid state of Punjab and Sindh converging in Pakistan and emptying into the Arabian sea south of Karachi. Where once there was only a narrow strip of irrigated land along these rivers, developments over the last century have created a large network of canals and storage facilities that provide water for more than 26 million acres (110,000km^2) the largest irrigated area of any one river system in the world.
  • The partition of British India created the conflict over the plentiful water of the Indus basin. The newly formed states were at odds over how to share and manage what was essentially cohesive and unitary network of irrigation. Furthermore, the geography of the partition was such that the source river of the Indus basin were in India. Pakistan felt its livelihood threatened by the prospect of Indian control over the tributaries that fed water into the Pakistani portion of the basin. Where India certainly had its own ambitions for the profitable development of the basin, Pakistan felt acutely threatened by conflict over the main source of water for its cultivable land.
  • During the first year of partition the water of the Indus were apportioned by the Inter - Dominion accord of May 4, 1948. This accord required India to release sufficient water to the Pakistani regions of the basin in return for annual payments from the government of Pakistan. The accord was meant meet immediate requirements and was followed by negotiations for a more permanent solution. Neither side, however, was willing to compromise their any of the schemes to divert the flow of water in the river.
  • The system of rivers in the Indus basin comprises 2,000 miles of the river Indus and its five tributaries from the East Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, with an aggregate length of 2,800 miles. Most of the upper reaches of the Indus basin lie in India. All these rivers combine in Mithankot in Pakistan and flow into the Arabian Sea near Karachi. The Indus system of rivers has been used for irrigation ever since civilization took root in the area. The water disputes too date back to the pre-partition era, when there were significant inter-state differences between Punjab, Sindh, Bahawalpur and Bikaner.
  • Most of the upper reaches of the Indus basin lie in India. All these rivers combine in Mithankot in Pakistan and flow into the Arabian Sea near Karachi. After Pakistan was created in 1947, this inter-state dispute amongst the four states became an international water dispute between the two newly formed nation states. The issues around water sharing were now between West Punjab of Pakistan and East Punjab of India. Lands on the West (which are today part of Pakistan) are fertile and the British, wanting to take advantage of the fact, developed the Indus Basin irrigation system
  • Kishan Ganga Hydro Electric Project INTRODUCTION The Kishan ganga Hydroelectric Plant is part of a run-ofthe-river hydroelectric scheme that is designed to divert water from the Kishan ganga River to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin. It is located 5 km (3 mi) north of in Jammu and Kashmir, India and will have an installed capacity of 330 MW. Construction on the project began in 2007 and is expected to be complete in 2016.
  • DOWNSTREAM IMPACT Pakistan is constructing the NeelumJhelum hydropower plant downstream of the Kishanganga. The Kishanganga Project will divert a portion of the Neelum River from Pakistan which will reduce power generation at the NeelumJhelum Hydropower Plant. India states the project will divert 10 percent of the river's flow while other estimates stand as high as 33 percent. Water flow below the NeelumJhelum Dam, in Pakistan's is expected to be minimal as both projects are diverting water to the Jhelum River.
  • Cont..., The International Court of Arbitration gave its "final award" on 20th December 2013. The court delivered its "final award" after India requested clarification of an order issued by it in February. The "final award" specifies that 9 cumecs of natural flow of water must be maintained in Kishanganga river.
  • DESIGN The proposed Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project would be located on river Kishanganga, Jammu & Kashmir. The project involves construction of a 37 meter high concrete faced rock-fill dam and an underground powerhouse.
  • INDUS WATER TREATY HISTORY Pakistan is an agricultural country. 80% of its agricultural output comes from the Indus Basin. Pakistan has one of the worlds largest canal systems. After Independence, problems b/w two countries arose over the distribution of water. Rivers flow into Pakistan territory from across India. In 1947 after the division between Pak-India, many of the canal head works remained with India. On April 1, 1948 India stopped the supply of water. Pakistan protested and India finally agreed on the agreement on May 4, 1948.
  • Cont., In 1952 Pakistan approached World Bank as the agreement wasnt the permanent solution. After negotiations between the two countries through the offices of the World Bank, it was finally in Ayub Khans regime. The agreement was signed between Pak-India in September 1960. This agreement is known as INDUS WATER TREATY.
  • ACHIEVEMENTS This treaty divided the use of rivers and canals between the two countries. Pakistan obtained exclusive, rights for three western rivers. Indus, Jehlum and Chenab. India retained three eastern rivers. Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Treaty guaranteed ten years of uninterrupted water supply. Three multipurpose dams; Warsak, Mangla and Tarbela were built.
  • CONT..., A system of eight link canals was also built and the remodeling of existing canals was carried out. Five barrages and a gated siphon were also constructed under this treaty.
  • PAK INDIA WATER ISSUE CONFIDENCE BUILDING MEASURES What is confidence building measures ? The Lahore Memorandum Of Understanding held at Lahore in 1999 . Kashmir .., a stone in the way of negotiations . Interests of both states in Afghanistan especially India . Regular exchanges between people of the two states can create better understanding and goodwill . Role of international community can help in resolving the problems of both the states .
  • ROLE OF MEDIA What is Media ? Define Social media ? How can media play a positive role ? Current role of Pakistani Media . Current role of Indian Media .
  • REASONS AND SOLUTIONS OF PAK-INDIA WATER ISSUE. The main reasons for Pak India water issue are : India building dams on Pakistani rivers such as Kishan ganga dam. Bagilhar dam. Dams on Indus river. Projects on Chenab river.
  • CONSEQUENCES Everyone knows about the traditional rivalry between India and Pakistan. Which results in so many consequences in which water issue is the main consequence. India is violating the Indus Water Treaty (IWT). They are building dams on Pakistani rivers which is the violation of Indus Water Treaty.
  • SOLUTIONS AVAILABLE Minimize the water usage Economize on water usage through change in cropping patterns (less rice and no sugarcane, more pulses, oilseeds) and through more water efficient crops. A Mutual Agreement A mutual, peaceful agreement should be carried out between the two countries. A traditional war A traditional war should be carried out between the two countries it is the best solution for the water dispute between India and Pakistan.