other punctuation hyphen,dash,ellipses

Download Other punctuation hyphen,dash,ellipses

Post on 15-Jun-2015




2 download

Embed Size (px)


  • 1. Business English at Work 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

2. Other Punctuation Use semicolons and colons correctly.Objectives Use quotation marks and apostrophes correctly. Differentiate between the uses of hyphens and dashes. Use parentheses and italics (or underlines) correctly.continuedBusiness English at Work PP 17-1a 3. Other Punctuationcontinued Identify uses for ellipses, brackets, and asterisks.Objectives Place adjacent marks of punctuation in correct order. Use capital letters with other punctuation marks correctly.Business English at Work PP 17-1b 4. Other Punctuation Independent Clauses Use a semicolon to separate two closely related independent clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, or, nor, but).Seek constructive criticism of your oralpresentations; maintain a good attitude aboutnegative comments.Business English at WorkPP 17-2 5. Other Punctuation Conjunctive Adverbs Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb such as however, nevertheless, therefore, moreover, and furthermore. Place the semicolon before the conjunctive adverb. A comma usually follows a conjunctive adverb of two or more syllables.We use word processing software to design ournewsletter; consequently, we no longer use the servicesof a graphics artist.Business English at Work PP 17-3 6. Other PunctuationEnumerations and Explanations Use a semicolon before such introductory expressions as for example (e.g.), that is (i.e.), or namely when they introduce enumerations, explanations, or examples that are not essential to the sentence. Place a comma after the expressions.We are changing our Internet sales campaign; forexample, we are sending e-mail messages to ourcustomers.Business English at WorkPP 17-4 7. Other Punctuation Series Use a semicolon to separate items in a series if any of the items already contain commas.The telephone techniques seminars are in Cleveland,Ohio; Pensacola, Florida; Springfield, Illinois; and LittleRock, Arkansas.We plan on offering PowerPoint workshops on Monday,May 15; Wednesday, May 17; and Wednesday, May 24.Business English at WorkPP 17-5 8. Other Punctuation Introduction to Lists Use a colon to introduce lists after expressions such as the following, as follows, these, and thus. Capitalize the word following the colon when items begin on separate lines in a list.Your choice of copying method depends on the following factors:1. Number of copies2. Budget3. Deadline4. Print qualityBusiness English at WorkPP 17-6a 9. Other Punctuationcontinued Introduction to Lists Capitalize the word after the colon when two or more complete sentences follow the colon.Before you send an e-mail, ask these questions: Does mysubject line describe the message? Have I limited myselfto one idea? Do not capitalize the word after the colon when the material (other than an enumerated list) cannot stand alone or when the material explains the first clause.The parts of a letter are as follows: inside address, body,and complimentary close.Business English at WorkPP 17-6b 10. Other Punctuation Incomplete Introductory Clauses Do not use a colon after an incomplete introductory clause that introduces a list.The customer service representatives are Humberto Juarez,Sean Kaisi, and Jesse Englert. Use a colon if the items in the list appear on separate lines.The customer service representatives are:Humberto JuarezSean KaisiJesse EnglertBusiness English at WorkPP 17-7 11. Other Punctuation Illustrations and Explanations Use a colon before expressions such as namely, for example, or that is when these expressions introduce explanations that are essential to the meaning of the sentence.Several technology seminars will be offered nextweek: for example, smart phones, hand-held andpalm PCs, and wireless LANs.Business English at Work PP 17-8 12. Other Punctuation Sentence Interruptions Do not use a colon before a list if another sentence separates the introductory clause and list.The following letter openings attract readers attention.Please let me know if you would like additional informationabout each opening. Use you. Start with a question. Offer words of praise.Business English at Work PP 17-9 13. Other PunctuationTime Use a colon between the hour and minutes expressed in figures.Our staff meeting begins at 9:15 a.m.Business English at WorkPP 17-10 14. Other Punctuation SalutationsUse a colon after the salutation in a business letterwith mixed punctuation (a colon after the salutationand a comma after the complimentary close.)Dear Ms. Emerson:Do not use a colon with open punctuation (nopunctuation after the salutation or complimentaryclose).Dear Ms. EmersonBusiness English at Work PP 17-11 15. Other Punctuation Direct Quotations Use quotation marks around a direct quotation. A direct quotation includes the exact words spoken or written by someone. Place periods and commas inside the closing quotation mark.Heather Estrada said, Read your e-mail only when youhave the time to respond.Give recipients the main idea in the first paragraph of ane-mail message, she said.Business English at WorkPP 17-12 16. Other Punctuation Indirect Quotations Do not use quotation marks in an indirect quotation. The words whether or that often introduce an indirect quotation.Heather Estrada said that you should read your e-mail only when you have the time to respond.Business English at Work PP 17-13 17. Other Punctuation Separated Quotations Use two sets of quotation marks when a quotation is separated by intervening expressions such as he said. Do not capitalize the first word of the second part of the quoted material.Unlike library-based research, she said, theinformation found at Internet sites may havegrammar and punctuation errors.Business English at WorkPP 17-14 18. Other Punctuation Parts of Published Works Use quotation marks around the names of articles in newspapers and magazines.An article entitled E-mail Etiquette was in ourlatest newsletter. Use quotation marks around the titles of chapters in books.The title of Chapter 17 is BusinessCommunication.Business English at WorkPP 17-15 19. Other Punctuation Technical or Unusual Expressions Use quotation marks around technical or unusual expressions.We found a bazillion grammar errors on that Webpage.The downtime for the intranet exceeded twohours.Business English at WorkPP 17-16 20. Other Punctuation Special Effect Words Use quotation marks around slang words or special effect words and phrases.We offer freebies for ordering from our Webpage.Jane needs hand holding whenever she learnsnew software.Business English at WorkPP 17-17 21. Other Punctuation Instructions Use quotation marks to highlight instructions introduced by the words signed, entitled, marked, labeled, and headed. Capitalize the first letter of the word or phrase.I immediately opened the envelope markedConfidential.Use the red file folder labeled Urgent.Business English at Work PP 17-18 22. Other PunctuationQuotation Marks WithOther Marks of Punctuation Place a question mark or exclamation point inside the closing quotation mark when the question mark or exclamation point applies only to the quoted material. The manager asked, Did you respond to Craigs e-mail message? Cool! exclaimed Kristie when she found out that she did not have to work on Saturday.Business English at Work PP 17-19a 23. Other PunctuationcontinuedQuotation Marks WithOther Marks of Punctuation Place a question mark or exclamation point outside the closing quotation mark when the exclamation point or question mark applies to the entire sentence. Are you positive that she said, Overnight packages must leave by 3 p.m., not 4 p.m.?Business English at Work PP 17-19b 24. Other PunctuationcontinuedQuotation Marks WithOther Marks of Punctuation Place semicolons and colons after the closing quotation mark. Alexia explained, E-mail is not available today because of network maintenance; however, many of us still tried to send e-mail messages.Business English at WorkPP 17-19c 25. Other Punctuation Contractions Use an apostrophe to show the omission of a letter or letters in a contraction.Business English at Work PP 17-20 26. Other Punctuation Possessives Use an apostrophe and s (s) to form the possessive of a singular noun.Jeans reportmanagers e-mail Use an apostrophe and s (s) to form the possessive of an irregular plural noun.womens speeches childrens perceptions Use an apostrophe to form the possessive of a regular plural noun that ends in s.employees hours proofreaders marksBusiness English at Work PP 17-21 27. Other Punctuation Plurals Do not use an apostrophe to form the plurals of words from other parts of speech used as nouns unless the word would be easily misread.The pros and cons of sending e-mail depend upon thecircumstances.His use of numerous sos during his speech wasdistracting.Business English at Work PP 17-22 28. Other Punctuation Lowercase Letters and Abbreviations Add an apostrophe and s (s) to form the plurals of lowercase letters and abbreviations with letters. The apostrophe is used so that the resulting plurals are not confused with other words. Crossing ts and dotting is three letter asBusiness English at Work PP 17-23 29. Other PunctuationNumbers Add an s to form the plurals of numbers expressed in figures. Do not add an apostrophe and s (s).in the 1950ssize 12sseveral 7sForm 1040sBusiness English at Work PP 17-24 30. Other PunctuationCapital Letters and Abbreviations Use an apostrophe and s (s) to form the plurals of the capital letters A, I, M, and U to avoid misunderstandings in meaning.As Us Do not add an apostrophe and s (s) to form the plurals of other capital letters.four Nstwo Js Do not add an apostrophe with abbreviations that end with capital letters.CPAs HMOsPCs M.A.sBusiness English at Work PP 17-25 31. Other PunctuationQuotations Within Quoted Material Use apostrophes (single quotation mark