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    DASHHYPHENITALICS

    BOLDELIPSES

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    En dash

    It is a good substitute for the word to

    Example:

    Chapters 1 to 4

    Chapters 1--4

    8:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.

    8:00 a.m.7:00p.m.

    DASHES

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    Em dash

    Indicates a dramatic pause. By using it, the writer is

    giving special emphasis to the words that the dashseparates from the rest of the sentence.

    Example:

    CPR sometimesbut not alwayssucceeds in reviving

    heart attack victims.

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    You are the friendthe only friendwho offered tohelp me.

    Never have I met such a lovely personbefore you.

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    It is used to join two or more words serving as asingle adjective before a noun

    Example:A one-way street, chocolate-covered peanuts

    Hyphen (-)

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    Use a hyphen with compound numbers

    Example:

    Forty-six

    Sixty-three

    Our much-loved teacher was sixty-three years old.

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    With prefixes:

    ex-husband

    Un-american

    semi-invalid

    Self-respect

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    Use ellipsis marks when omitting a word, phrase,line, paragraph, or more from a quoted passage.

    Ellipsis ()

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    RULE 1

    Use no more than three marks whether the omission occurs inthe middle o a sentence or between sentences.

    Example:Original sentence:

    The regulation states,All agencies must document overtime or riskosing federal funds.

    Rewritten sentences:All agencies must document overtime

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    Rule 2

    When you omit one or more paragraphs within a long

    quotation, use ellipsis marks after the last punctuationmark that ends the preceding paragraph.

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    It is used to emphasie the part of your text you wish to

    stand out. It could be someones name, a deadline dateor another key piece of information.

    Punctuation which follows bold text should not itselfbe old.

    If you are transcribing a speech, you might want to usebold text (or italic text) to emphasize words in writtingon which the speaker placed particular emphasis inspeech.

    Bold text

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    The Man Booker Prize for 2012 was awarded to HilaryMantel, the second time that she wa won.

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    Use italics to flag part of your text which is differentfrom that sorrounding it titles of books, journals,

    plays, films, musical words, etc. They should begiven in italics if they are a complete publishedwork; if you are referring to an individual shortstory, song, article, etc. Withing a larger publication,

    use single quotation marks

    Italic text

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    A Tale of Two Cities has perhaps the most famousopening sentence in all of literature.

    I, Robot contains nine short stories, of which LittleLost Robot is my favourte.

    Dante tells us that above the entrance of the Infiernois inscribed Lasciate ogne speranza, voi chentrate.