NOTES - CH 7 Echinoderms and Characteristics of Phylum: Water vascular system with tube feet important in feeding and locomotion Skin gills for respiration.

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Chapter 7Marine Animals Without a BackboneEchinodermsCharacteristics of Phylum: Name means "Spiny Skin" Endoskeleton Skeleton on inside of body Covered by tissue All 7000 species exclusively marineEchinodermsCharacteristics of Phylum: Water vascular system with tube feet important in feeding and locomotion Skin gills for respiration.EchinodermsCharacteristics of Phylum: Radial symmetry in adults- larvae are bilaterally symmetricalEchinodermsCharacteristics of Phylum: Nervous system is decentralized (no brain) this allows any portion of the body to lead Can regenerate lost body partsTypes of EchinodermsSea stars-Move with tube feetHave a central disc in center of body surrounded by five arms (or multiples of 5 arms) some species have 50 arms)Types of EchinodermsSea stars-Internal organs extend through the entire body, including the armsCalcium carbonate plates are loosely embedded in spiny skin making them slightly flexible Types of EchinodermsSea stars-Carnivores that normally consume shellfish and coralPlay an important role is controlling shellfishpopulationsKeystone species in many ecosystemsWhat is a keystone species? a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend where removing them would change the ecosystem drastically.Pisaster ochraceusTypes of EchinodermsBrittle starsLike sea stars, they have a central disc surrounded by armsFive arms seen in brittle stars are thin and covered in numerous spinesTypes of EchinodermsBrittle starsInternal organs are restricted to the central discThe tube feet present in brittle stars are without suckers and used for feeding on detritus and small animalsTypes of EchinodermsSea Urchins, Sea Biscuits, Sand DollarsElongated, movable spines much longer than those sea in other groupsRigid plates are fused into a solid structure called a testTestTypes of EchinodermsSea Urchins, Sea Biscuits, Sand DollarsMove with tube feetMouth on the bottom, anus on top of bodySea Biscuit Sand DollarTypes of EchinodermsSea Urchins, Sea Biscuits, Sand DollarsBiting mouth for grazingAristotle's lantern is the feeding structure of muscles and mouthpiecesFeed on detritus, encrusting organisms, algae or anything else they can scrape off surfacesTypes of EchinodermsCrinoids600 species are typically found in deep waterRepresented by feather stars and sea liliesTypes of EchinodermsCrinoidsSea lilies live attached while feather stars are mobileSea Lily Feather StarTypes of EchinodermsCrinoidsThese organisms have 5 or more arms that branch out for suspension feeding Some use a mucous net to aid in food captureTypes of EchinodermsSea cucumbersFive rows of two feet are restricted to one side, where the animal liesThe plates found in the sea cucumbers are loosely embedded in the thick skinThey are deposit feedersTypes of EchinodermsSea cucumbersSea cucumbers have a interesting predator escape plan called evisceration, where they expel the internal organs; it is assumed this allows escape for the sea cucumber.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCxKFc3XtJsSince all echinoderms have regenerative capabilities, these internal organs will grow back.Invertebrate ChordatesThe Phylum Chordata is a phylum that contains two invertebrate groups, tunicates and lancelets, as well as many other, more familiar animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.TunicatesFishInvertebrate ChordatesChordates have several features that are seen at least during some portion of the life.Lancelets are the only chordates that possess all the features as adults.LanceletInvertebrate ChordatesCharacteristics of Chordates: Notochord - nerve cord support Tubular nerve cord Muscular pharynx Gill slits Post-Anal Tail Ventral heartTypes of Invertebrate ChordatesTunicates:All 3000 known species are marineCommonly called sea squirts they filter feed via an incurrent siphon and squirt water out an excurrent siphon after the water has been filteredH2OTunicatesLarvae has chordate characteristics that are not seen in adults- only pharynx remains Called tunicates because of thick outer covering called a tunicTunicatesLarvae are free swimming after fertilization occurs in open water- mass reproductionAdults normally live attached to boats, docks, reefs, or other hard substrate On boat propellerSalpTypes of Invertebrate ChordatesLancelets23 speciesVery small, only up to 3 inches longLaterally compressed and elongatedLive in shallow marine waters as filter feedersTypes of Invertebrate Chordates LanceletesBody shows segmented muscle tissueNotochord attached to the musclesGills are used to filter food, not in respirationPossess all chordate features as an adult Only lack backbone that separates them from vertebratesCharacteristics of Major Animal Phyla

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