echinoderms & chordates. phylum echinodermata (echinoderms) about 6,000 species all _______________

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  • Slide 1
  • Echinoderms & Chordates
  • Slide 2
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) About 6,000 species All _______________
  • Slide 3
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Eucoelomates, triploblastic
  • Slide 4
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Eucoelomates, triploblastic Pentamerous (5-part) radial symmetry as adults Parts arranged around oral/aboral axis
  • Slide 5
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Why not in ___________? Larva bilaterally symmetrical!
  • Slide 6
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Calcareous endoskeleton. Plates form surrounded by tissues. Arises from mesoderm. echino- means spiny, -derm means skin.
  • Slide 7
  • Phylum Echinodermata Water vascular system in _____________ Connect to tube feet Note madreporite on aboral surface of starfish (takes water into system)
  • Slide 8
  • Phylum Echinodermata Tube feet in action
  • Slide 9
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Complete digestive system Reproduction: have good regeneration abilities, some can break into parts and reproduce asexually.
  • Slide 10
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Most reproduce sexually Dioecious, fertilization external
  • Slide 11
  • Phylum Echinodermata No head or well developed brain (nerve ring) No excretory organs (no flame cells, nephridia, etc.) No respiratory system (tube feet and papulae help exchange gases)
  • Slide 12
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Deuterostomes
  • Slide 13
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Crinoidea (sea lilies/feather stars) Class Asteroidea (sea stars) Class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Class Echinoidea (sand dollars and sea urchins) Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
  • Slide 14
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Crinoidea (sea lilies/feather stars) Sessile for some or all of life. Add new __________ as they grow. Have mouth and anus on upper surface.
  • Slide 15
  • Phylum Echinodermata Class Crinoidea (sea lilies/feather stars) Glorious fossil past (6000 fossil species, 600 living ones). Wisconsin
  • Slide 16
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Crinoidea (sea lilies/feather stars) Class Asteroidea (sea stars) Class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Class Echinoidea (sand dollars and sea urchins) Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
  • Slide 17
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Asteroidea (sea stars) 1500 species. Active and important marine predators Move about on tube feet
  • Slide 18
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Asteroidea (sea stars) Predation may cause problems Ex, crown of thorns starfish (coral predator)
  • Slide 19
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Asteroidea (sea stars) The rest of the story: part of problem may be overcollecting of tritons, a gastropod that preys on these starfish
  • Slide 20
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Crinoidea (sea lilies/feather stars) Class Asteroidea (sea stars) Class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Class Echinoidea (sand dollars and sea urchins) Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
  • Slide 21
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) 2000 species. Abundant, nocturnal. Move using two arms at a time Feed on plankton and organic debris with tube feet.
  • Slide 22
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Crinoidea (sea lilies/feather stars) Class Asteroidea (sea stars) Class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Class Echinoidea (sand dollars and sea urchins) Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
  • Slide 23
  • Phylum Echinodermata Class Echinoidea (sea urchins/sand dollars) Lack arms. 1000 species. Endoskeleton of fused calcareous plates No arms or rays. Have rows of spines and tube feet. Spines and feet moveable.
  • Slide 24
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Echinoidea (sea urchins/sand dollars) Sea urchins: long spines Sand dollars: short spines
  • Slide 25
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Echinoidea (sea urchins/sand dollars) Pedicillariae. Discourage small invertebrates from settling on surface.
  • Slide 26
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Echinoidea (sea urchins/sand dollars) Aristotles lantern: complex chewing apparatus.
  • Slide 27
  • Phylum Echinodermata Can be important members of marine ecosystems Ex, sea urchins as herbivores
  • Slide 28
  • Urchins, sea otters, and kelps Sea otters hunted almost to extinction on West Coast Now expanding back Top carnivores (almost): eat mussels, abalone, sea urchins. Purple sea urchin
  • Slide 29
  • Urchins, sea otters, and kelps Urchins eat __________ of kelp Fewer urchins now that otters are back.
  • Slide 30
  • Urchins, sea otters, and kelps Giant kelp forests recovering as otters return. Fish and other associates rebounding.
  • Slide 31
  • Sea urchins Eggs (roe) edible, delicacy (known as uni in sushi bars)
  • Slide 32
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Crinoidea (sea lilies/feather stars) Class Asteroidea (sea stars) Class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Class Echinoidea (sand dollars and sea urchins) Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
  • Slide 33
  • Phylum Echinodermata Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Elongate Soft bodied (endoskeleton plates reduced or absent) Often with feeding tentacles around mouth
  • Slide 34
  • Phylum Echinodermata Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Have respiratory organ (respiratory tree) (11, F), arising from cloaca (12, G: near anus, 13) Gonads (8, H) Intestine (10, I)
  • Slide 35
  • Phylum Echinodermata Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Symbiosis story: black pearlfish can be found living in _________ of sea cucumbers
  • Slide 36
  • Phylum Echinodermata Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Sea cucumber defense tactic: regurgitate internal organs and _____________ them later
  • Slide 37
  • Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms) Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Edible: braised sea cucumber with tea leaves
  • Slide 38
  • Phylum Chordata (chordates) About 43,000 species Triploblastic, eucoelomates
  • Slide 39
  • Phylum Chordata (chordates) Bilateral symmetry Deuterostomes
  • Slide 40
  • Segmentation Present in chordates Often visible in embryo
  • Slide 41
  • Internal skeleton Differs from echinoderms. Rodlike, deeper in body. Gives attachment points for muscles. Human skeleton
  • Slide 42
  • 4 Key Features 1) Hollow (tubular!) nerve cord under *dorsal* surface
  • Slide 43
  • 4 Key Features 1) Hollow (tubular!) nerve cord under *dorsal* surface Becomes brain and spinal cord *Invertebrates usually have ventral nerve cords.
  • Slide 44
  • 4 Key Features 2) Notochord: flexible rod just under nerve cord. Originally served as muscle attachment point
  • Slide 45
  • 4 Key Features 3) Pharyngeal pouches in embryo In humans, only one remains to form Eustachian tubes connecting inner ear to __________.
  • Slide 46
  • 4 Key Features 4) Postanal tail (at least during embryonic stages). Nearly all other animals with terminal anus
  • Slide 47
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates) Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets) Subphylum Vertebrata (vertebrates)
  • Slide 48
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates) Marine. 1300 species.
  • Slide 49
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates) Adult sessile, filter feeder. Has holdfast, siphons (incurrent & excurrent, pharynx). Cilia in pharynx create water current.
  • Slide 50
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates) Pharynx used to feed, traps food in mucus on endostyle Pharynx has gill slits for breathing Many adults secrete tunic: tough sac of ______________ around body.
  • Slide 51
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates) Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets) Subphylum Vertebrata (vertebrates)
  • Slide 52
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets) Marine. 20 species. Ex, Amphioxus or Branchiostoma
  • Slide 53
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets) Filter feeder, can swim Oral hood has tentacles (sensory) Cilia create water current, used for breathing and filter feeding. Water exits via _________________.
  • Slide 54
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets) No head, brain, eyes, etc. Skin only 1 cell layer thick (vertebrates with multi- layered skin) ________________: segmented muscles.
  • Slide 55
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets) Model version (as seen in lab)
  • Slide 56
  • Chordate survey Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates) Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets) Subphylum Verteb

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