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NIH and IRB Purpose and Method. M.Ed. 6085 Session 2. NIH Certification. The National Institute of Health certifies researchers to ensure they understand protections dealing with human subjects. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • NIH and IRBPurpose and MethodM.Ed. 6085Session 2

  • NIH CertificationThe National Institute of Health certifies researchers to ensure they understand protections dealing with human subjects. You must complete your NIH certification prior to beginning your project (and as a part of this class).http://faculty.weber.edu/kristinhadley/med6085

  • Institutional Review Board for use of Human Subjects in Research http://departments.weber.edu/meduc/irb/default.htmIRB applicationhttp://departments.weber.edu/meduc/irb/hsr_appl.rtf

    Once you have a signed proposal, complete the IRB application. Give a hard copy to Dr. Gowans and email her an electronic copy. You must include a copy of your signed proposal title page and a copy of your NIH Certification with your hard copy IRB application.

  • Literature Review Rubrichttp://faculty.weber.edu/kristinhadley/med6085/

    DOI Lookup sitehttp://www.crossref.org/guestquery/

  • NATURE OF THE PROBLEMProblem Statement: Premise I, Premise II, Interaction problem (III) Literature Review: supporting detailsPremise I - details, analyze, synthesize Premise II details, analyze, synthesize Problem (III) that arises due to I & II Previous work to address III include method, instruments Weaknesses or holes in literature Summary: bring it all together and lead reader to the need for the study

    PURPOSE Restate problemThe purpose of this research is . . . The specific objectives are 1. . . . 2 . . . METHODHow will you accomplish the objectives stated in the purpose through your study? Participants Instrumentation Procedure Data AnalysisTHE MASTERS PROJECT PROPOSAL

  • PurposeIn the introductory paragraph, briefly review the problem or issueState the purpose of the proposed studyMay be broken down into objectives which could be stated as questions or intended outcomes ORCould be written as hypothesesExample:The purpose of this study is to . . . . Specifically, the research will answer the following questions:1. How does increased . . . . impact student achievement in 6th grade social studies?2. Does increased . . . .. help students feel more connected in the classroom?Should be no more than 1, sometimes 2 pages

  • Purpose activityPurpose activity

  • MethodIn the introductory paragraph, discuss the study type and how it will meet the purpose of the study.Identify the major tasks that will be completed in order to achieve the objectives stated in the purpose. Under each category, provide a detailed description of the tasks. Tasks could includeIdentification of participants - specificDescription of measurement instrumentsStep by step procedures specific Data analysis plan to answer research questionsDETAILS !!! SPECIFIC ! SPECIFIC !!! DETAILS !!

  • Data Analysis PlanThis subsection describes how the data will be analyzed for your projectQuantitative: statistical analysisQualitative: how will you present the findings?

    Your data analysis plan should enable you to answer your research question

  • Statistics Review (Quantitative Studies)Descriptive statistics: describing an outcome with numbersMeasures of Central TendencyMean: the average ( X )Mode: the most common Median: the middle number when the data is put in order from least to greatestWhen should you use which measure?

  • More Descriptive StatisticsMeasures of VariabilityStandard Deviation (SD): a measure of how spread out the data are; roughly, the average of how far each data point is from the meanRange: difference between the lowest data point and the highest data pointInterquartile Range: rank order the data, split it in half and in half again, subtract the median of the bottom half from the median of the top half

  • More Descriptive StatisticsMeasures of AssociationCorrelation coefficient (r ) : a number between -1 and 1 that describes the relationship between two data sets r=0 if there is no relationshipr=1 if there is a perfect positive relationship (as one goes up, the other goes up a perfectly predictable amount)r=-1 if there is a perfect negative relationship (as one goes up, the other goes down a perfectly predictable amount)Most correlation coefficients are somewhere in betweenSquare the correlation coefficient to show how much (%) of the second variable can be attributed to differences in the first variable. This is called the coefficient of determination (R2).Association does not mean Causation!

  • Inferential StatisticsWhat is the probability that the difference found between these samples would have occurred if there was really no difference in the total populations?

  • t-testsWhat is the probability that the differences between TWO groups has occurred by chance alone?

    The way it is reported:t(49) = 1.34, p

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)What is the probability that the differences between more than two groups has occurred by chance alone?

    The way it is reported: F(3,53) = 26.26, p

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)ANOVA doesnt indicate where the differences occur, just that there is a differenceResearchers must then pair the means to find the differences

  • Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)Like ANOVA but some covariate (something that is in common between the two groups) is statistically held constant when the comparison is calculated.

    For example: comparing the achievement level of different schools with SES held constant

  • Chi-SquareComparisons when data cant be averagedNonparametric: without assumptions about the shape of the data distribution

    The way it is reported:2 (2, N=120) = 12.39, p=.002

    (number of groups -1, number of subjects)Value calculated by the statisticProbability that this difference is due to chance alone

  • Regression AnalysisMethod used to develop a predictive equation based on the relationship between two variables

    Multiple regression is when two or more variables are used to predict another variable using an equation

    Confidence interval: accuracy band around the predicted scores.

  • Statistical SignificanceWhen a difference is found that appears unlikely to have occurred by chance, that difference is identified as being statistically significant. It does not mean the difference is important, crucial, or practically significant.

    Effect size: a standard measure of the size of the differenceStandardized mean difference effect size: difference between means divided by the standard deviation

  • Data Analysis PlanThink how will the data enable me to answer my research question?Evaluate the data in such a way that you can answer your question with confidence.

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