nelson mandela. biography his early years born on july 18 th, 1918 in the village of mvezo in...
Post on 24-Dec-2015
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- Nelson Mandela
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- His early years Born on July 18 th, 1918 in the village of Mvezo in South Africas Cape province Rolihlahla means troublemaker From a Xhosa royal family Thembu that rules over a part of Transkei His father died of tuberculosis when he was 9 so he replaced him in the elders council He used to stay there and listen to the elders histories about his ancestors courage during the war. This gave him the idea that someday he will also participate to his countrys freedom
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- Schooling success He attended a Methodist school when he was seven and was given the name Nelson by his teacher. He was the first one of his family to go to school Did his secondary studies at Clarkebury Boarding Institute in Engcobo and he went Methodist college in Fort Beaufort attended by most Thembu royalty Mandela began work on a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree at the University of Fort Hare, an elite black institution in Alice, Eastern Cape There he studied English, anthropology, politics, native administration, and Roman Dutch law in his first year, desiring to become an interpreter or clerk in the Native Affairs Department and left without receiving a degree because he was suspended Beginning law studies at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
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- The beginning of Apartheid Colonization by the English and Dutch during the 17th century English domination of the Dutch descendants (known as Boers or Afrikaners) the 1940's, the Afrikaner National Party was able to gain a strong majority Invented the apartheid as a means to cement their control over the economic and social system Starting in the 60's, a plan of ``Grand Apartheid'' was executed, emphasizing territorial separation and police repression
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- Apartheid Becomes Law With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized. By 1950, the government had banned marriages between whites and people of other races, and prohibited sexual relations between black and white South Africans. The Population Registration Act of 1950 classified all South Africans by race: -including Bantu (black Africans) -Coloured (mixed race) - white -Asian (meaning Indian and Pakistani)was later added. Land Acts: -80 percent of the country's land for the white minority -"pass laws" for non-whites (documents authorizing their presence in restricted areas). In order to limit contact between the races, the government established separate public facilities for whites and non-whites.
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- 40 years of misery and violence In 1959 the Bantu Self-Government Act created 10 Bantu homelands (known as Bantustans). Black South Africans are majority reduced the possibility that blacks would unify into one nationalist organization. Conflicts between Xhosa and Zulu The government forcibly removed black South Africans from rural areas designated as "white" to the homelands, and sold their land at low prices to white farmers. From 1961 to 1994, more than 3.5 million people were forcibly removed from their homes and deposited in the Bantustans
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- They lived in poverty and misery Black homelands suffered from a lack of labour. They would always work in the white- owned cities, mines and factories as low-level wage earners A steady flow of cheap labour as long as the Black Homelands were kept economically dependent on the Republic of South Africa The intense poverty barred young blacks from attending school in order to go to work in South Africa for less than $100 per month Over 50% of the black population was illiterate, compared to a 99% rate of white literacy.
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- The start of his political career 27 years as a political prisoner. Country's first black president in 1994 until 1999. Leading member of the African National Congress (ANC), ( opposed South Africa's white minority government and its policy of racial separation, known as apartheid ). Prison-bound martyr and worldwide symbol of resistance to racism. Nelson Mandela used his stature to help dismantle apartheid and form a new multi-racial democracy.
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- His jail years Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 Ended up serving 27 years behind bars in Robben Island. one visitor a year one letter every six months Separated the political prisioners from criminals
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- Nobel peace prize He won the Nobel peace prize in 1993 He shared it with Mr Klerk
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- President 1994-99 1994: elected and began his term on May 10th, 1994. Reconciled everyone and gain international respect 1995:Encouraged black south Africans to support the national Rugby team the Springboks (which lead to the 2009 movie Invictus)
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- A long walk to freedom 1994 he published his autobiography: Long Walk To Freedom The book profiles his early life, coming of age, education Mandela describes prison time on Robben Island and Pollsmoor Prison. His 28-year tenure in prison was marked by the cruelty of Afrikaner guards, backbreaking labour, and sleeping in minuscule cells which were nearly uninhabitable. Built relationships with prisoners His fight for a better world Mandela dedicated his book to his six children There should be no tensions in any region in which we have not emerged as the majority party. Let us stretch out our hands to those who have bitterness and to say to them: We are all South Africans, we have had a good fight. But now this is the time to heal the old wounds and to build a new South Africa.
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- The impact he has on the world His death; memorial made in his honor -Brought the whole world together (presidents included) -Touched every single heart and inspired so many people -The reason people believe in heroes nowadays Barack Obamas speech- http://www.citypress.co.za/politics/full- speech-us-president-barack-obama-pays- tribute-nelson-mandela/ http://www.citypress.co.za/politics/full- speech-us-president-barack-obama-pays- tribute-nelson-mandela/
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- He becomes a hero
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- He is a virtuous person and a good role model to those with bleak futures in their minds. His determination is an example of inspiration to everyone. His wife, Winnie, indicates his selflessness: If you became involved in our cause as he was, it was just not possible to think in terms of yourself at all. His achievements are truly extraordinary.
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