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  • Musculoskeletal System

  • Musculoskeletal System

    The musculoskeletal system is composed of three different parts:

    Bones

    Joints

    Muscles

  • Bones

    Our bones are hard solid organ that forms part of the skeleton.

    Our bodies can be broken down into 3 sections

    Head

    Trunk

    Limbs

  • Bones

    Bones are mostly made up of bone cells that are continuously renewed.

    There are two types of bone

    Spongy bone contains many small cavities

    Compact bone is much more dense

  • Bones

    Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

    Bones can be divided into 4 categories.

    Long bones

    Short bones

    Flat bones

    Irregular bones

  • Long Bones

    Longer than they are wide

    They have a long thin body, called the diaphysis, and two rounded extremities, called epiphyses.

    They are mainly compact bone.

    The center contains bone marrow, a soft, fatty substance and blood vessels.

    These bones are mainly found in the limbs.

  • Long Bones

  • Short Bones

    Generally cubic.

    Mainly composed of spongy bone

    Generally found in the wrists and heels

  • Short Bones

  • Flat Bones

    Thin, flat and generally curved.

    Theyre made up of two layers of compact bones separated by a small layer of spongy tissue.

    These are found in the skull, ribs, sternum and scapula (Shoulder blade)

  • Flat Bones

  • Irregular Bones

    These bones do not fit into any other category

    They have irregular shapes.

    They are found mainly in the spine

  • Irregular Bones

  • Bones

  • Bones

  • Function of Bones

    Support Bones form a rigid structure that makes up the framework of

    our bodies. They also provide an anchor for organs and muscles.

    Protection Bones protect our internal organs. Rib cage protects the lungs

    and heart. Skull protects the brain.

    Movement Bones act as levers during muscle movement.

  • Function

    Storage

    Internal cavities of the bones store fat. Bony tissue stores minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus.

    Production of blood cells

    The bone marrow found in the bones produces the formed elements of the blood

    Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

  • Joint

    A joint is the junction between two or more bones.

    Joints are essential as they allow movement.

    Almost all bones have at least one joint.

    Joints are lined with cartilage to minimize wear on the bones.

  • Types of Joints

    There are 3 types of joints in our bodies

    Fixed

    These joints do not move. They are the type of joints which are in our skull.

    Semi-movable

    These are joints with only a small range of motion. The spine is a series of these joints.

  • Fixed Joints

  • Semi-Movable

  • Types of Joints

    Freely movable joint

    Some joints can only move in one direction

    Ex Elbow and Knees

    Some joints have a complete range of motion

    Hips and Shoulders

  • Movable Joints

  • Movable Joints

  • Types of Joints

  • Muscles

    Muscles have the ability to contract causing our bodies or our internal organs to move.

    Muscles have 4 functions Movement

    Posture maintenance

    Joint stabilization

    Heat release

  • Movement

    Muscle movement can either be voluntary or involuntary.

    Voluntary movements are movements as raising your arm or moving your legs.

    Examples of involuntary movements are peristalsis and your heart beating.

  • Posture, Joints and Heat

    When we arent moving, our muscles are still contracting and releasing to maintain our posture.

    Muscles are also used to stabilize your joints. Some joints need muscles to stay in place.

    Most (75%) of the energy used by muscles are transformed into heat. The heat lost helps maintain our bodys temperature.

  • Types of Muscles

    There are 3 different types of muscles

    Skeletal Muscles

    Also known as striated)

    Smooth muscles

    Cardiac Muscles

  • Skeletal Muscles

    Skeletal muscles are the only voluntary muscles in our bodies.

    They are attached to bones.

    As they contract, they move the bones.

    Skeletal muscles have relatively low endurance and must rest after being exerted.

  • Skeletal Muscles

    Skeletal muscles are made up of several muscle fibers gathered into bundles.

    Muscles are held together with connective tissue and is connected to the bone through tendons.

    Skeletal muscles also have antagonistic muscles.

    This means that they pull in opposite directions to move a joint in opposite directions Ex Bicep and Tricep

  • Skeletal Muscles

  • Antagonistic Muscles

  • Smooth Muscles

    Smooth muscles make up the walls of certain internal organs.

    Ex Uterus, stomach, uterus

    They move involuntarily.

    They move much slower but tirelessly.

  • Smooth Muscles

  • Cardiac Muscle

    Cardiac muscle is the muscle that makes up the heart.

    It is an involuntary muscle with a structure more similar to skeletal muscle.

    It has great strength and endurance.

    This type of muscle is branched.

  • Cardiac Muscle

  • Bones

    The adult human body has 206 bones.

    The femur, or thighbone, is the longest and strongest bone of the human skeleton.

    There are 26 bones in the human foot.

    The human hand, including the wrist, contains 54 bones.

  • Bones

    Were going to learning about the bones in the arms, legs, head and trunk.

    We wont be learning all of the bones.

    You will be given a diagram on the test where youll have to identify them.

  • Bones of the Skull

  • Bones of the Skull

    For the skull, all you are responsible to know is:

    The skull

    Mandible (jaw)

    The skull is composed of 22 different bones, but most fuse together by the age of 2.

  • Bones in the Spine

  • Bones of the Spine

    The spine is composed of 33 bones in 5 sections

    From top to bottom, the sections are:

    Cervical

    Thoracic

    Lumbar

    Sacrum

    Coccyx

  • Bones of the Arm and Hand

  • Bones of the Arm and Hand

    There are 3 bones in the arm

    Humerus Upper arm

    Ulna Bone from the elbow to pinky

    Radius Bone from the elbow to thumb

    The wrist and hand are in 3 sections

    Carpals

    Metacarpals

    Phalanges

  • Bones of the Leg and Foot

  • Bones of the Leg and Foot

    The legs have 4 bones

    Femur Thigh bone Tibia Shin bone Fibula A bone in the lower leg Patella Kneecap

    The foot is similar to the hand

    Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

    The link between the femur and spine is the pelvis.

  • Ribs

  • Scapula

  • Ribs and Scapula

    You have 12 sets of ribs Some individuals can have 11 or 13 ribs.

    Ribs are classified into 3 categories True ribs are connected directly to the sternum.

    False ribs are connected to the sternum through another rib

    Floating ribs do not connect to the sternum

    The sternum is the bone where the ribs meet.

    The scapula is the shoulder blade.

  • Muscles

    You are born with every muscle fiber that youll ever have.

    If all of your muscles could pull in one direction, they would be capable of pulling 25 tons.

    There are around 650 muscles in the body.

  • Muscles

  • Muscles

    The muscles you will be responsible for are:

    Bicep

    Triceps

    Deltoid

    Pectoral

    Quadriceps

    Glutes

    Anterior tibialis

    Calves

    Hamstrings

    Obliques

    Abdominals

    Erector Spinae

    Latissimus Dorsi

    Trapezius

  • Muscles in the Arm

  • Shoulder and Chest

  • Leg Muscles

  • Core Muscles

  • Back Muscles