lucas read grammar book

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  • 1. 2 ndSemester Grammar Book Lucas Read

2. Table of Contents 3: Conditional 4: Irregulars 5: Present 6: Present perfect irregulars 7: Past 8: Subjunctive perfect 9: Tanto y Tan 10: Impersonal se 11: Saber vs. Conocer 12: Informal Commands 13: Formal Commands 14: Nosotros commands 15: Subjunctive 16: Irregulars 17: Trigger phrases 18: Demonstrative Adjectives 3. Conditional

  • Used to express wonder, probability, conjecture,or possibility
  • Use when you use would: I would go
  • Infinitive +=Conditional
  • Same irregulars as the future
  • Can be used to make polite requests Me gustara

a as a an ais a 4. Irregulars

  • CaberCabr
  • PonerPondr
  • DecirDir
  • HaberHabr
  • SalirSaldr
  • HacerHar
  • PoderPodr
  • TenerTendr
  • QuererQuerr
  • ValerValdr
  • SaberSabr
  • VenirVendr

5. Present Perfect

  • The present perfect is a compound tense formed with the verb haber and the past participle of the other verb.
    • AR- ado
    • ER- ido
    • IR- ido
  • True in past and still true in the present.
  • Action was completed recently
  • To tell what you have done or have not done.

han ha Habes Has Hemos He 6. Irregulars Abrir - abierto Cubrir - cubierto Decir - dicho Escribir - escrito Hacer - hecho Morir - murto Pooner - puesto Resolver - resuelto Romper - roto Ver - visto Volver - vuelto Ir - ido 7. Past Perfect

  • haba habas haba habamos+Verb=Past perfect habais haban
  • Use when you had/have done something in the past
  • Remove (er, ir) and add ido
  • Remove (ar) and add ado

8. Subjunctive Perfect

  • The present perfect subjunctive is used in the same clauses as the present subjunctive, and is normally used to indicate a completed action with verbs in the present or future tense.
  • Use the present subjunctive conjugation of the verb haber + your past participle
  • Haya
  • Hayas
  • Haya
  • Hayamos+Participle
  • Hayan

9. Tanto y Tan

  • Tan como (asas)
  • Tanto como (as much/as many as)
  • Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs
  • Tanto is used with nouns and verbs
  • El es tan alto como yo.
  • Ella tiene tanto amigos como yo.

10. Impersonal Se

  • Se prohibe fumar
  • Se prohbio fumar.
  • Use se to state when something is done in general (Smoking is prohibited.)
  • When using 'se' the verb is always in the 3 rdperson.
  • Can be used in ALL tenses.

11. Saber v Conocer

  • Conocer is used for knowledge of people, places, or literary works.
  • Conoces a Taylor Swift?
  • Saber is used when you need to state facts
  • Yo sabo que Senora Linares es la mejor maestra en el mundo

12. Informal Commands

  • Affirmative: Conjugate to the usted form
  • Negative: Drop ending add opposite ending and 's'
  • + Habla, Come, Escribe
  • - No Hables, No Comas, No Escribas
  • -- Comelo, No lo comas
  • --Di haz vessal ten ven pon * add infinitive to end: venlo, tenla

13. Formal Commands Affirmative: Yo form, opposite ending Negative: Yo form opposite ending if plural, add 'n' Affirmative: Hablen, compre, escriba Negative: No Hable, No compren, No escriba Hablelo, No la compren D, est, vaya, sea,sepa, tenga, venga, ponga 14. Nosotros Commands

  • Simply add the opposite ending of the nosotros conjugation...
  • Hablamos-> Hablemos
  • Mono Verbs- When making the verb reflexive for nos you drop thes Hablemo s nos->Hablemonos

15. Subjunctive

  • Represents attitudes, uncertain, will, hypothetical, influence, emotion, or doubt.
  • Put in yo form, change to the opposite ending
  • Que- connects to subjunctive
  • When there is no change in subject from clause to clause, use the infinitive

16. Irregulars

  • Car, Gar, Zar- formed same way as always
  • Conducir, decir, oir- conduzca, diga, oiga
  • Dar-> d, des, den, demos
  • Hay-> haya, hayas, hayan, hayamos

17. Trigger Phrases

  • Impersonal expressions-es bueno que, es malo que, es necesario que, etc. Express order, need, piece of advice, or desire.
  • Expressions of emotion-alegrarse de que, esperar que, sentir que, temer que, etc. Shows fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, joy, pity
  • Conjunctions of time-use the subjunctive after them after the subordinate clause is habitual or in the past. Asi que, caundo, despues de que, en cuanto, hasta que, luego que, tan pronto como.

18. Demonstrative Adjectives este(this)esta ese(that)esa aquel(that over there)aquella estos(these)estas esos(those)esas aquellos(those over there)aquellas MALE FEMALE


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