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  • Lighting Engineering

  • This Page Intentionally Left Blank

  • Lighting Engineering Applied calculations

    R. H. Simons and A. R. Bean

    OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI

  • Architectural Press An imprint of Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd

    - ~ A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group

    First published 2001

    9 R. H. S imons and A. R. Bean 2001

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W 1P 0LP. Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available on request

    ISBN 0 7506 5051 6

    Composition by Cambrian Typesetters, Frimley, Surrey Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall

    p LANT A _TI:tEE

    /q'/I

    FOR EVERY VOI.JJ~ THAT WE PUBLISH, BUTTERWORTH-HEINF~AN~ WILL PAY FOR BTCV TO PLANT AND CARE FOR A TREE.

  • Contents

    Preface xi

    1 The Light Field of a Luminaire

    1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

    Coordinate system Practical coordinate systems Transformation of coordinate systems Solid angle Light flux, luminous intensity and illuminance Luminous intensity distribution diagrams Calculation of luminous flux Problems References

    1 2 4 8

    14 19 25 32 33

    2 The Luminous Intensity Table and Related Computer Applications

    2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

    Introduction Layout of/-tables Interpolation in the/-table Turning the luminaire about the photometric axes in the (C, 7) coordinate system Turning the luminaire about the photometric axes in the (B,/3) coordinate system Calculation of luminous flux from/-tables File formats for the electronic transfer of luminaire photometric data Problems References

    3 4

    34 34 37 45 57 57 61 65 66

    3 Direct Illuminance from Point, Line and Area Sources

    3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

    Illuminance as a vector quantity Illuminance on an oblique plane Luminance and luminous exitance A special case - uniform diffusion An important tool: the principle of equivalence Uniformly diffuse sources Non-uniformly diffuse area sources Non-planar illuminance

    67

    67 68 72 72 74 75 88

    104

  • vi Contents

    3.9 3.10

    The scalar product Examples Problems References

    112 116 119 120

    4 Flux Transfer

    4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

    Introduction Reciprocity Flux transfer from a point source Flux transfer from a linear source Flux transfer between opposite parallel rectangular surfaces Flux transfer to a vertical surface Flux transfer within a cylindrical enclosure Cavities References

    121

    121 121 126 134 148 161 162 167 168

    5 Interreflected Light

    5.1 Introduction 5.2 Radiosity 5.3 Luminaires 5.4 Louvres 5.5 Interreflections in rooms

    References

    169

    169 170 171 177 183 200

    6 Optical Design

    6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

    Introduction Approaches to optical design The light source General principles Reflector systems Metallic light guides using specular reflection Diffuse reflection and transmission Refractor systems Problems Bibliography References

    201

    201 201 202 204 206 232 233 234 268 268 268

    Colour

    7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8

    Introduction The R, G, B system The CIE system Non-uniformity of the CIE (1931 ) diagram Correlated colour temperature Colour sample systems Standard illuminants Subtractive colour mixture

    270

    270 272 275 288 289 292 294 294

  • Contents vii

    7.9 7.10

    Colour rendering and the CIE colour rendering index Visualization and colour Bibliography

    298 299 300

    8 Interior Lighting

    8.1 General 8.2 Example 8.3 Designed appearance lighting 8.4 Accuracy in calculations 8.5 Cubic illuminance 8.6 The illumination solid 8.7 CSP 8.8 Visualization 8.9 Detailed requirements for interior lighting

    References

    301

    301 303 317 322 323 336 339 343 344 344

    9 Main Road and Motorway Lighting

    9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18

    Introduction Lighting and accidents Visibility of objects on the road Some road lighting terminology Lighting the road surface Quality criteria Conventions for installation geometry Calculation of road surface luminance Calculation of threshold increment Glare control mark Surround ratio Lighting classification of roads, and associated quality criteria Measures of visibility Maintenance factors Tabular and graphical methods of calculation Perspective view of the road National variations Critique of luminance design References

    346

    346 346 347 348 350 352 352 353 366 369 369 370 371 374 376 384 385 386 387

    10 Residential Road Lighting

    10.1 Introduction 10.2 Lighting and crime 10.3 Lighting measures 10.4 Lighting levels 10.5 Colour of light source 10.6 Glare 10.7 Calculation grid 10.8 Design data 10.9 Derivation of utilization factors

    389

    389 389 390 390 392 392 393 393 398

  • viii Contents

    Problem References

    401 401

    11 Tunnel Lighting

    11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14

    Introduction A diversion: the black hole effect and adaptation level Zones of the tunnel Types of lighting Classification of tunnels Lighting of the entrance to the threshold zone Lighting within the threshold zone Lighting of the interior zone Lighting of the transition zone Lighting of the exit zone Other requirements Reduction of access zone luminance by screens Variation of lighting levels with daylight levels Short tunnels Bibliography References

    402

    402 402 403 403 404 404 406 407 407 408 409 409 409 410 410 410

    12 Floodlighting

    12.1 Introduction 12.2 Floodlighting for sports 12.3 Design criteria 12.4 Training plan 12.5 Floodlighting diagram 12.6 Illuminance in complex situations 12.7 The floodlighting of buildings 12.8 Revealing the building after dark 12.9 Lighting levels and design calculations 12.10 Public buildings and statues

    Problems Bibliography References

    411

    411 411 411 415 417 425 431 432 432 437 438 439 439

    13 Specific Applications: Airfield Lighting and Emergency Lighting

    13.1 Airfield lighting 13.2 Emergency lighting

    References

    440

    440 449 450

    14 Daylight Calculations

    14.1 Introduction 14.2 The overcast sky 14.3 Window area

    452

    452 452 455

  • Contents ix

    14.4 14.5

    Development of the coefficients C and D G Daylight factor at a point References

    459 466 470

    15 Measurements

    15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 15.11 15.12

    General Photoelectric cells Light distribution photometry Basic components for a light distribution photometer Light distribution goniophotometers for the (C, ?9 coordinate system Goniophotometers for floodlights and projectors Checking the alignment of a goniophotometer Determination of light output ratios by integrators Practical procedures for testing luminaires Measurement of r-tables Illuminance measurements Luminance measurements References

    471

    471 471 473 475 477 487 488 491 496 499 500 505 510

    Appendix: Lighting bodies and associated standardizing organizations

    Index

    511

    513

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  • Preface

    The last decade has seen the universal application of personal computers to lighting engineering problems on a day-to-day basis. No longer is the power of the computer invoked just for that large prestige job, the computer is constantly in use in lighting engineering laboratories and lighting design offices. This means that many calculations that were previously impracticable are well within the reach of any engineer or, for that matter, any person who has access to an appro- priate computer program. However, there can be dangers if the application engineer does not have a grasp of the underlying principles used in the calculation processes.

    In this book we set out to give the reader the mathematical background to the calculational techniques used in illuminating engineering and link them to the applications in which they are used. In addition, we give details of photometric measurements, as a knowledge of these is necessary to understand the origin of the basic data used in the calculations and to check that the calculated performance requirements are met. We hope, also, the material will be of use to those who wish to write their own computer programs, and that it will be of didactic value.

    To keep the treatment as concise as possible we have assumed that the reader has a basic knowledge of lighting engineering.

    Some of the material in this book is an update of material used in a book we published in 1968 entitled Lighting Fittings- Performance and Design (Pergamon Press). That book was well received