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  • PETE 301

    RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    Ibrahim Kocabas Petroleum Engineering Department

    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

  • Reservoir Engineering

    Learning Objectives of Lecture 1:

    n Define/describe a reservoir n Define Reservoir Engineering n Describe/list role/functions of Res. Eng. n State objectives of Res. Eng. n Pet. Res. Hyrdrocarbon (HC) fluids n Classification based on phase diagram n Types/forms reservoir energies

  • Reservoir Engineering

    Branches of Petroleum Engineering: Drilling engineering Production engineering Reservoir engineering.

  • Definition of a Reservoir

    A reservoir is that portion of a trap which contains oil and/or gas as a single hydraulically connected system.

    -it is a rock layer -porous so that stores oil -permeable so that allows flow of oil -has a mechanism to prevent escape of

    oil(trapping mechanism)

  • How many reservoirs?

    What are the trapping mechanisms?

  • DEFINITIONs OF RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Craft The application of scientific

    principles to the drainage problems arising during the development and production of oil and gas reservoirs.

  • DEFINITIONs OF RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Colhoun The phase of engineering

    which deals with the transfer of fluids to, from or through the reservoirs.

  • Functions OF RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    To continuously monitor the reservoir and collect relevant data and interpret it to be able to

    1. Determine (present conditions)) 2. Estimate ( future conditions) and 3. Control the movement of fluids through the

    reservoir so that

  • Objectives of reservoir engineering

    we can a) enhance ( increase recovery factor)

    and b) accelerate ( increase production

    rate) the oil recovery

  • Petroleum reservoir HC fluids

    n Oil Reservoirs - Produce mainly oil and gas and in some cases also water

    - Heavy oil - Conventional oil

    - Black oil - Volatile oil

    n Gas Reservoirs - Produce mainly gas and in some cases also water

    - Dry gas - Wet gas

    n Gas Condensate Reservoirs - Produce gas which contains hydrocarbon liquid

    - Gas condensate

  • PHASE DIAGRAM OF RESERVOIR FLUIDS

  • Phase Diagram of Black Oil

  • Phase Diagram of Dry Gas

  • Phase Diagram of Wet Gas

  • Phase Diagram of Gas Condensate

  • CLASIFICATION OF OIL RESERVOIRS

    n Under Saturated Oil Reservoirs - Reservoir pressure is initially above

    the bubble point pressure n Saturated Oil Reservoirs - Reservoirs pressure is initially below

    the bubble point pressure

  • STAGES OF OIL RECOVERY

    Recovery (production): is the displacement of oil and gas

    towards the production wells and to the surface, and divided into: Primary recovery Secondary recovery Enhanced oil recovery

  • STAGES OF OIL RECOVERY

    Primary Recovery Production is accomplished through

    the use of natural energy of the reservoir.

    What is(are) form(s) of natural reservoir energy?

  • Types of reservoir energy

    1. - Energy of compression of water and rock within the reservoir

    2. - Energy of compression of oil within the reservoir

    3. - Energy of compression of gas within the reservoir

    4. - Energy of compression of water that are in adjacent or underlying aquifers

  • Types of reservoir energy

    5. The gravitational energy that causes oil and gas to segregate within the reservoir

    6. The surface energy manifesting itself in capillary pores

  • Types of reservoir energy

    Note: n First four are potential energies

    stored in compressed constituents.

    n Equivalent to the potential energy stored in a spring.

    n When converted to pressure-volume work, we can produce fluids.

  • Types of reservoir energy

    Note: As mechanisms of energy release

    are provided by drilling and operation of wells the reservoir pressure declines, fluid expands, flow is induced and hence fluids are produced.

  • Reservoirs classified based on dominant natural energy

    Can we classify reservoirs based on dominant producing energy type?

    - no consensus on the definitions and classifications.

  • Producing mechanisms based on dominant reservoir energy being released

    Expansion drive Water drive Compaction drive

    Imbibition drive Oil drive Gas drive partial full

    Solution Gas drive Gas cap drive Gas drive

    Segregating Nonsegregating

    From Lake and Walsh

  • Producing mechanisms based on dominant reservoir energy being released

    Common special

    Depletion drive

    Gas cap drive

    imbibition compaction

    Solution Gas drive

    Full Partial

    Segregating Nonsegregating

    Water drive Combination drive

    Formation drive I.Edge

    II.Bottom I.Edge

    II.Bottom

    gravity

    PETE 301RESERVOIR ENGINEERINGReservoir EngineeringReservoir EngineeringDefinition of a ReservoirSlide Number 5DEFINITIONs OF RESERVOIR ENGINEERINGDEFINITIONs OF RESERVOIR ENGINEERINGFunctions OF RESERVOIR ENGINEERINGObjectives of reservoir engineeringPetroleum reservoir HC fluidsPHASE DIAGRAM OF RESERVOIR FLUIDSPhase Diagram of Black OilPhase Diagram of Dry GasPhase Diagram of Wet GasPhase Diagram of Gas CondensateCLASIFICATION OF OIL RESERVOIRSSTAGES OF OIL RECOVERYSTAGES OF OIL RECOVERYTypes of reservoir energyTypes of reservoir energyTypes of reservoir energyTypes of reservoir energyReservoirs classified based on dominant natural energyProducing mechanismsbased on dominant reservoir energy being releasedProducing mechanismsbased on dominant reservoir energy being released