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  • 1. The Art of Late AntiquityReading:Key Monuments:Stokstad, 217-233 Jewish Catacomb, Villa Torlonia, Rome, 3rd century CERange: Good Shepherd, Orants, andc. 200 CE-476 CE the Story of Jonah, Catacomb of SS. Peter andLate Antique Marcellinus, Rome, Late 3rd- Early 4th centuryKey Terms/Concepts: The Parting of the Redsyncretism, catacomb, narrativeSea, Torah Niche, Houseimage, iconic image, orant, torahSynagogue, Duraniche, baptistery, chi-Europos, 244-45 CE.rho, basilica, centrally Parting of Abraham andplanned, spolia, Christianity, JudaLot, Santa Mariaism, Mithraism, proselytizing, Maggiore, Rome, c. 422-432 CE.

2. Rome100 CE 200 CE 312 CEof 60 million people of 60 million people of 60 million people nofewer than 10,000about 200,000 were more than 5.5 millionwere Christians. Christians.people were Christians. 3. MenorahTrumpetsSpoils Relief, Arch of Titus, Rome, 81 CE 4. MenorahArk of the Covenant MenorahJewish Catacomb, Villa Torlonia, Rome, 3rd century CE 5. Narrative Image Jonah PeterGood Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah, Catacomb ofSS. Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Late 3rd-Early 4th century 6. Jonah given to the whale Jonah being cast up Jonah resting under the arborFigures from the Story of Jonah, Turkey (?), Late Third CenturyCE 7. Sarcophagus withEndymion, early 3rdCentury CESyncretism is the conscious or unconscious adaptation ofimages from one tradition to another, giving the image a newmeaning.Sarcophagus withJonah, c. 270 BCE 8. Iconic Image The Lord is my shepherd: therefore can I lack nothing. He shall feed me in a green pasture: and lead me forth beside theGood Shepherd waters of comfort [] Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me [] thy loving-kindness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house ofPeterthe Lord for ever.Good Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah, Catacomb ofSS. Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Late 3rd-Early 4th century 9. Syncretism is the conscious or unconscious adaptation ofimages from one tradition to another, giving the image a newmeaning.The Good Shepherd, Turkey Hermes Kriophoros, Crete, 620(?), Late Third Century CEBCE 10. Iconic Image PeterGood Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah, Catacomb ofSS. Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Late 3rd-Early 4th century 11. Orant FiguresOrant FigureMan with raised(Jonah), Turkey (?), Late arms, Arlon, Belgium, c.Third Century CE. 3rd century CE 12. Dura Europos, Syria 13. Dura Europos, Syria, Aerial View. 14. Dura EuroposMithraeum House SynagogueHouse ChurchBuilt c. 300 BCE Inhabited until 256 CE. 15. Dura EuroposMithraeum House SynagogueHouse ChurchBuilt c. 300 BCE. Inhabited until 256 CE. 16. House Synagogue (Exterior), DuraEuropos, Syria, 244-245. 17. Assembly RoomHouse Synagogue (Plan), DuraEuropos, Syria, 244-245. 18. TorahNicheTorah Niche, House Synagogue, DuraEuropos,244-45. 19. Torah Niche, DuraEuropos, c. 244-245 CETorah Reading, Congregation Beth Israel. 20. Prophets TheAaron at hisTemple ofMiraculousClosed TempleTempleDagon WellElijah reviving Mordechai being led to Torah Samuel a Child AchashveroshNicheanointingAdoption of MosesDavidTorah Niche, House Synagogue, DuraEuropos,244-45. 21. Hands of God*Continuous NarrativeEgyptian Soldiers Egyptian Soldiers Moses MosesThe Parting of the Red Sea, Torah Niche, HouseSynagogue, Dura Europos, 244-45 CE 22. Dura EuroposMithraeum House SynagogueHouse ChurchBuilt c. 300 BCE. Inhabited until 256 CE. 23. Christian House Church, DuraEuropos, Syria, c. 244-245 CE 24. Baptistery, House Church, Dura Europos, 244-245 CE 25. Reconstruction of the Baptistery, House Church, DuraEuropos, 244-245 CE 26. Good Shepherd Leading His Flock, Baptistery, HouseChurch, Dura Europos, 244-245 CE 27. Reconstruction DrawingChrist Healing the Paralyzed, Baptistery, HouseChurch, Dura Europos, 244-245 CE 28. Dura Europos MithraeumHouse Synagogue House ChurchBuilt c. 300 BCE. Inhabited until 256 CE. 29. Reconstruction of the Mithraeum, DuraEuropos, 168-210 CE 30. Shrine to Mithras, Mithraeum, DuraEuropos, 168-210 CE 31. Reconstruction of theShrine, Mithraeum, Dura Europos, 168-210 32. Slaying the Mithran Bull, Mithraeum, DuraEuropos, 210 CE 33. Constantine and Christianity*Constantine legalizes Christianity by signingUnder this the Edict of Milan in 313 CEsign, conquer. 34. Constantine and ChristianityLicinius also stopped*This is seen as a land conflict but also ahonoring the Edict ofMilan, persecuting defense of the Christians by Constantine.Christians in his lands. 35. Constantine and ChristianityConstantine converted*Throughout his reign Constantine financiallyto Christianity on hisdeathbed in 337. supported both pagan and Christian building projects. 36. BasilicasBasilica of Trajan, Rome, 112 Aula Palatina, Trier, 300-325 37. Aula Palatina, Trier, 4th century CEBasilica Ulpia, Forum of Trajan, Rome, 112-117, dedicated 117 CE. 38. Centrally Planned ChurchesChurch of Santa Costanza Mausoleum ofPlan, Rome, c. 350 CEAugustus, Rome, c. 14 39. Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome, c. 14 CEChurch of Santa Costanza, Rome, c. 350 CE 40. Church of Santa Costanza Plan, Rome, c. 350 CE 41. Dionysus Seated AmongVines, House of theMasks, Delos Late 2nd CenturyBCEJohn 15:1-17 I am the true vine, and myFather is the vinedresserWine Making, Church of Santa Costanza, Rome, c. 350 CE 42. Christianity under Theodosius395 CETheodosius divides the Roman Empireinto Eastern and Western regions. *Theodosius I asserted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire in 380 and ordered the dismantlement of all pagan temples and monuments inTheodosius I (379-395) 391. 43. Christianity after Theodosius395 CETheodosius divides the Roman Empireinto Eastern and Western regions. Byzantine Empire *The successors of Theodosius I continued to strengthen Christianity as a powerful force in both the East and the West.Honorius I (395-423) 44. Church of Santa Sabina, Rome, c. 422-432. 45. SpoliaChurch of Santa Sabina, Rome, c. 422-432. 46. Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, c. 432-440. 47. Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, c. 432-440. 48. Parting of Abraham and Lot, Santa MariaMaggiore, Rome, c. 422-432. 49. The Sack of Jericho, Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, c. 422-432. 50. The Virgin Crowned as Queen of Heaven, Santa MariaMaggiore, Rome, Apsidal Mosaic redone in 1294 by Jacopo Torriti. 51. The Fall of the Western Empire395 CETheodosius divides the Roman Empireinto Eastern and Western regions. 402418476 410 Byzantine Empire*By 476, all of Italy was under the control of the Ostrogoths. 52. The Conquest of the West Byzantine EmpireAn able Goth wants to be like a Roman; only apoor Roman would want to be like a Goth. Theodoric, King of the Visigoths 53. Critical Thinking Questions1. What role did Constantine and Theodosius play in the art and religion of the late Roman Empire?2. What is syncretism? How is it used in early Christian and Jewish art?3. What is spolia? How does it manifest in Late Antiquity?4. How does the basilica change in Late Antiquity?