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KANARESE GRAMMARWith Graduated Ex erc is esBYHAROLD SPENCER, B.A.REVISED BYW. PERSTON, B.D.MYSORE CTrYPRINTED AT THE WESLEY PRESS1950Therevision of `Spencer's Grammar' was undertaken someyears ago at the request of the Rev . H. H. Newham, at thattime General Superintendent of the Methodist MissionarySociety in Mysore State, the Mission Press having publishedthe original edition, as also its predecessor, the `ElementaryGrammar' of the Rev . Thomas Hodson (1859). The workcould not be taken up at once and has had to be done in oddmentsof time. When it was decided to make a revision, it was agreedto make it fairly thorough that it might reflect, to some extentat least, the changes which have taken place in written andspoken Kanarese as a result of the notable literary renascenceof the period since this grammar was written .

The year afterl

Mr . Spencer's book was published, that is, 1915, is commonlyregarded as marking the appearance of a new interest in thehistory of Kanarese literature and a new effort to make thelanguage an effective medium of expression in the, modernworld. This was the year of the establishment of the KannadaSahitya Parishat, the Kanarese Literary Academy . As fruit ofthe labours of the founders of the Academy and their coadjutorsgreat changes have been wrought in the language as popularlywritten and spoken . The movement represented a reactionaway from a highly Sanskritized style of writing, a style ofresounding compound words, ornate figures and labyrinthine sen-tences, and towards the natural idiom of Kannada as found inold ballads and folk tales .

I ts result is seen in substantial literaryachievement of considerable variety. From the point of viewof language the consequence has been to forge a fresh style forpopular writing and journalism, as also for factual statements inhistory and branches of modern knowledge. Characteristicwords and idioms have been restored to use which undeservedlyhad been allowed to lapse.No change has been made in the general form of Mr .Spencer's book. The features which distinguished the firstedition are retained, namely, the graded exercises in translationand a certain amount of exposition . The transliteration ofPREFACEia..aoa .oo: . . Roma. . - - : .. c caac - . z- o - . :- o. . o. o.o. , a: c- - . aca.oo.- o a - - . : - -. - ::o.:, - xc- . . - ca:- o - c.. ca. - m: o amma Aca - a: c- - . aoo- o o. - om: o ia.a- :- co- :o.o- .c-a: a. a. o o o:- .o a- - . a..a- - xam. .a . o.: ao. . - o o m. ::. o.a. - : - co. . - a.- : .o:- o. .. o. | .- .c- .a: ac. - ooc a. . o.. . - como:. . o. o . : coo .o.- - ma. .: . . -co.. | .- .c- .a: ooo - .o. o :- .o om .. a.oa :- . - : o .o - : - ao mao- I- o. .. o. o - co. . - a.- :.o av- a- . - . ac- o o:- .o:- .am- : .- - .o - o. . - o. . .a. - ac- a: c- - . - . . c. - o om . m- o . m- o.va. o.: o. . : a.o. i ia..ma. a Rao a: c- - . co.:.. - oo. oo.c .. ma - :A: . . - como:. . o. o . :_.o, :o . . . : - v. :. o., - o. oa.o : a.oao amma: av- c- - . .:- o, i. - . : - o. . o. o.acoama.. oaa.a, . : o.. amma ca:- o o. a , -io:aa..aoa..o. a..ao. o i. :.ama- . a L) o- - .. i. - . : mo..m- . a. o. c . o.a .o a. :o mo- - c- .coo: :.c a: - .. v- :. o |:o- ia..aoa i- . . o. , -.. . . v. aa.a o - a:- . |. ::. o. - ::, .aco. oa,a, -|aoama . aa.a o | I i .. a. a. a, a.o o - :,av- c- - . co.:.. - o A. occa:. o.a. . . . .: a . v- - xam. - a:c- - . a- . om - :- .o: . : o- o a .o c- ac o. : o - . .- - a: a- . . ac- .. c ma .o c- m- ca - .. ac.o.. - om- . Ac.o.. - om- . : a- o.- o m a::. : a. : . . - . oc- :a. . c- o c. - . ca. a.o o - - . , a: a. :o o o. ia..aoa. - a .- - a m- . a.o - ma.a- m- . o - :- :. - - :: o - x- m. a a . - .c- a.a. o- ,A. . , L`. v: CRRCI i. Ai A I i.a- , co. ` , . o . - - , - ao ". " o "L "L, oo .o - L, o - ao L, . o . . .- om co om, - ao . o- L , . a.o co. .m., - ao . . o . a.o . o.o. - co. .m.L, . - a.o co. .m. - ao . o . a.o . o.o. - co. .m.L, . . .. aa . o. a a: o o- ac- o om v: - om :o.. o c-: c - oo .o - -, :ma. . - a- , a - ". .a. ", - ao comma o : o a.o - :ma. .. - - o - ca. a. . . " " , oo .o - , - ao ":am. aa .a" o ":am. a a.a "L` L, . . .- LL, - :.c:c. : . . oam Q a: o co- .L` , oo .o - o.- , aoo "o o - - xc- . o.:, :- - "L-, aoo o - aaa . .: ma. . - . ".- - . - o. . : :.c- c oo .o - o. "L-, ocac.. a, ..o- -o,Ao . o "o. a.o", - ao "a.o o. "L L, oo .o - , o . ) - ao L . ) L , oo .o - L, . a: . . .- , o - :- m. co. o. - ao a commaL , oo .o - , - mov- - : o a - "a: "` ` , oo .o - -, - ao " i. .- , . L . )"` ` , ` . . .- om co om o a- , a - "a ) - . : .o " - ao" `o), - :, - . :)" . - o. . o.. . . . .- a - ".o" - ao".o o.: ao . o - :, o.:)"` , :ma. . - a:, o- . - - "- c ", a - .o` - , oo .o - , o ". " - ao "m "` -, :. x . . .- om co om, - ao o ` , oo .o - , - ao ":- - " o ":- c"-, oo .o - ` o c- - ao .: . - oom. o- . - - oo .o - L` . . ac. - . oo.. ia. v a)CONTENT'SPAGESCHAPTER ITHE ALPHABET-Vowels-Consonants-Combinationof Vowels with ConsonantsEXERCISE I .

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6-17THE ALPHABET (contd. )-Combination ofConsonants with Consonants-ExERctsE II-Semi-Vowels, or Semi-Consonants-Ex.ERCISE III.

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18-25MUTATIONAL COMBINATION OF LETTERS(4oq~ sandhi)-EXERCISE IV.

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26-30CHAPTER IICLASSIFICATION OF WORDS-Classificationaccording to Origin-Classification accor-ding to Grammatical Use-DECLENSioNsAND CONJUGATIONs-The Three Declen-sions-Gender-Number-Case-Person-TheTwoConjugations-Moods, TenseandVoice. . . .

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. . . 31-39THE FIRST DECLENSION-Masculine-THEFIRST CONJUGATION-Imperative-PresentTense-SYNTAX-The Present Tense-De-monstrative Adjectives-The SentenceEXERCISE V.

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40-45THEFIRSTDECLENSION (contd. )-Feminine-PersonalPronounsof the Third Person-THE FIRST CONJUGATION (contd. )-FutureTense-SYNTAX-The Fut ure Tense-Translation o `And '-EXERCISEVI .

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46-49THEFIRST DECLENSION (contd. )-Neuter-THE FIRST CONJUGATION (contd. )-PastABBREVIATIONSA(in 3A) for the 3A declension interj. , interjectionacc . , accusative case interr. , interrog . ,interrogativeadj . , adjective irreg. , irregularINTRODUCTIONadjctvl. , adjectival Kan. , Kanareseadv. , adverb loc. , locative caseadvbl. , adverbl. , adverbial m. , masculinealt. , alternative n. , neut. , neuterLESSON I .B (in 313), the 313 declension neg. , negativec. (cum), with nom. , nominative casecf. , compare p. , pageconj. , conjugation partc . , ptc . , ptcp. , participle LESSON II .conjunction ptcpl. , participialcont. , contingent pf. , perf. , perfectdat. , dative case pers. , persondecl. , declension plu. , plurale. g. , for example postp. , postposition LESSON III .ex. , example pref. , prefixemph. , emphatic pres. , presentf. , feminine pro. , pron. , pronounfut. , future redupl. , reduplicationgen. , genitive case rel. , relative LESSON IV.honfc . , honorific a. , sing. , singulari. e. , that is Sk. (Skt. ), Sanskritimpv. , imperat. , imperv. ,imperative tad . , tdb. , tadbhavamood tr . , transitive (verb)inf . , infin. , infinitive mood vbl. , verbalinatr. , instrumental case voc. , vocative caseintr. , intrans. , intransitive (verb)LESSON V.LESSON VI .LESSON VII .and `Adjectival Noun&'-EXERCISE XV. 100-105ixUSE of VERBAL PARTICIPL99---Coatotnpo-raneous or Successive Actions-Manner,Means, Cause-Verbal Participles followedby a Negative Verb-Participles followedbya Finite Verb having a different Subject-EXERCISE XVI . . . . . . . . .NOUNSOF RELATIONSHIP-PRONOUNS-FirstPerson-Second Person-SPECIAL USES OFTHE PLURAL-Honorific Plural Dvandva-sam4sa-TaE IRREGULAR VERB 'AContinuative Forms of Verbs-PerfectForms of Verbs-The Verb %d) with theDative Case-Ex ERCI8E XVII. . . . . . .PRoNouNs(contd. )-Emphatic and Reflex ivePronoun aaida tdnu-Third Person Neuteronted Verbal Forms-Ex ERciss XXIV.

. . .PAGRi106-114115-125Pronoun-THE I N'S T RUMENTAL CASE--EXERCISE XVIII

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126--132VERBS ENDING IN '44o im, ETC. -THEIRREGULAR VERB foa hoqu- EXERCISEXX.

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. . . 133-141PRONOUNS (contd. )-Interrogative Pro-nouns oipdgi yavanu, 44~) e-Repetitionof Pronouns, em-WORDS OF NUMBER-WORDS OF QUANTITY-THE DATIVE OF THEPOINT OF TIME-EXERCISEXX. . . . . . .WORDSOF MANNER-PRONOMINALENDINGSATTACHED To GENITIVE CASE -USE OFINTERROGATIVE WoRDs-THE LOCATIVECASE-Ex ERcisz XXI.

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. . .UNINFLECTEDWORDS Ozaiaavyaya-Usedas Postpositions, along with Relative Parti-ciples and as independent Adverbs-asAdjectives-Uninflected Forms partly orwholly declinable-Conjunctions-Onoma-topoeic (Imitative) Words-Interjections-Aff