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  • Indian Tea Research

    Saji M Kadavil Indian Tea Research

  • Indian Tea Research


    Chapter Section Contents Page No.

    List of tables and figures Glossary

    1 Introduction 7-13

    2 Production Profile of Indian Tea Industry 14-32

    2.1 World Tea Production 14 2.2 Production profile 15 2.3 Production in North and South India 16 2.4 Productivity of tea cultivation 17 2.5 Types of Tea Production 20 2.6 Bough Leaf Factories 24 2.7 Quality Constraints of Green Leaves 25 2.8 Impacts of Adulteration in Tea Market 28 2.9 Workers in Tea Industry 29 2.10 Production of Small Tea Growers 30

    3 Indian Tea Markets: International and Domestic 33-41

    3.1 Tea Exports: Status and Challenges of India 34 3.2 Domestic Consumption 38

    4 Trade Characteristics: Value Chain and Stakeholders 42-61

    4.1 International Value chain of the Indian Tea Industry 42 4.2 Stakeholders of Value Chain of Indian Tea 43 4.3 Direct vs Auction Sale 51 4.4 Indian Auction System 52 4.5 E-auction and Price realisation 59

    5 Legal Acts and Production and Social Cost 62-67

    5.1 PLA and other legislations in Indian Tea Industry 62 5.2 Constraints in Plantation- Social Cost of Production 63

    6 CSR initiatives in Indian Tea Industry 68-88

    6.1 CSR and Tea Sector 68 6.2 CSR and Small Tea Growers 72 6.3 Workers rights: Focus area of CSR 74 6.4 CSR and Business case in the Tea Industry 74 6.5 Ethical Trade Initiative 77 6.6 Faire Trade and Tea Industry 78 6.7 Trade Initiatives in Indian Tea Industry 82

    7 Case Study-Recent Changes and CSR practices 89-107

    7.1 Recent Accomplishments 89 7.2 Plantation Model to Participatory Management 90 7.3 New Model in Plantation Segments 93 7.4 Trade-off between Production and Brand Busniess 98 7.5 HUL: Withdrawing from Plantation Business 99 7.6 Competent in CSR and Productivity 100

  • Indian Tea Research


    7.7 McLeod Russel: Contouring into Global Plantation Company 102 7.8 Crop Diversification in Plantation Business 106

    8 Conclusion 108 References

    Sl. No Title of tables

    Page No.

    2.1 Production of tea in Work 14 2.2 Share of Production in North India and South India 16 2.3 The trend of production of various type of tea 22 2.4 Growth of BLF in India 24 2.5 Various Phases of Quality Determinant Factors 27 2.6 Impact of quality upgradation programmes for BLFs 27 2.7 Estimated number of labour employed in Tea Industry 29 2.8 Workforce in Indian Tea Industry-Statewise 30 2.9 Registered Small Tea Gardens in India 30

    2.10 Share of Small and Estate Gardens in India 31 2.11 Share of Small Growers in India-Statewise 3.1 World Tea Exports 33 3.2 Region wise Tea Exports 34 5.1 Daily Wages of Tea Workers in North India 64 5.2 Daily Wages of Tea Workers in South India 64 5.3 Total Cost for Workers in North India 65 5.4 Estimated Annual Expenditure for North Indian Tea Plantations 65 5.5 Estimated Annual Expenditure for South Indian Tea Plantations 66 5.6 Estimated Value of Tea Produced in 2005 66 5.7 Overall liability of the Tea Plantation in India 67 6.1 CSR Standards, Codes and Practices 62 6.2 The TBOD for CSR in Tea Industry 73 6.3 Perspective of Stakeholders on CSR 76 6.4 Code of Conduct of ETI 78

    List of Figures

    Sl.No Title of Figures Page No.

    2.1 Trends of Tea Production in India 15 2.2 Productivity of Tea Cultivation in India 18 2.3 Productivity in Districts of Assam 19 2.4 Productivity in Districts of West Bengal 20 2.5 Production of Orthodox and CTC Tea in India 21 3.1 Tea Exports from India 33 3.2 Indias Tea Exports to EU Countries 35 3.3 Domestic Consumption of Tea 38 3.4 Domestic Consumption of Packet and Loose Tea 39 3.5 Per Capita Consumption of Tea in Various Countries 41 4.1 Per centage of Auction Sale in India 52 4.2 Average Auction Price of Tea in India 55

  • Indian Tea Research


    6.1 CSR and Welfare Matrix 75 6.2 Process of CSR in Small Tea Sector 76

  • Indian Tea Research



    BLF Bought leaf factory

    CAGR Compound annual growth rate

    CoC Code of conduct

    CSO Central Statistical Organisation

    CSR Corporate Social Responsibility

    CTC Cut, Torn and Curl

    CTTA Calcutta Tea Traders Association

    ETI Ethical Trade Initiative

    HUL Hindustan Lever Limited

    KVK Krshi Vigyan Kendra

    ITA Indian Tea Association

    ITC International Tea Committee

    MNCs Multinational Companies

    NAS National Accounts Statistics

    NOC No Objection Certificate

    OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    PDS Peerumadu Development Society

    SHG Self-help Group

    TMCO Tea Marketing Control Order

    TPI Tea Promoters of India

    UPASI United Tea Planters Associations of South India

    USTPA United Small Tea Producers Association

    VCA Value Chain Analysis

  • Indian Tea Research



    Assessment: A study to determine whether, and to what extent, labour practices comply with the provisions of a code of labour practice. The term can refer to the study of a workplace, but can also apply to more general studies such as to an industry within a country. A study means a systematic investigation that covers all points of the relevant code. Where this concerns a workplace, it means a study involving the gathering of robust verbal, documentary, visual and physical evidence. Preliminary studies meant for detecting the likelihood that code provisions are not being observed are referred to as risk assessments and are understood to be less robust. Where such assessments do not involve the actual inspection of the workplace, they are referred to as desk-based risk assessments.

    Auction: Sale of tea in an auction room on a stipulated date, and at a specific time. Tea auctions are held in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Kenya and Malawi. These auctions only sell teas from their particular areas. The London Tea Auction held every Monday morning (barring public or bank holidays) in the city of London, is the only true international tea auction, where teas from all over the world are sold.

    Black tea: Fresh-picked green tea leaves are withered, spread out on racks to dry, and then crushed by rollers to release the juices from them (fermented or oxidised). The leaves turn brown and are then fired (or dried) by hot air and sorted into grades.

    Blend: a mixture of teas from several different origins to achieve a certain flavour profile. Most branded teas in the United States use 20 or more origins to achieve their desired taste.

    Blender: Tea taster who decides on the proportions of each different tea required to produce the flavour of a given blend.

    Broker: The person who negotiates the buying and selling of tea from producers, or for packers and dealers, for a brokerage fee from the party on whose behalf he acts.

    BOP-Broken Orange Pekoe:- Full-bodied black tea comprising broken segments of somewhat coarse leaves without tips. The smallest among leaf grades, it gives good colour in the cup and is used for several blends.

    BP: Broken Pekoe - Full-bodied black tea comprising broken segments of coarse leaves without tips.

    Brick tea: Chinese and Japanese teas mixed and moulded into bricks under high pressure. Once used as a form of currency.

    Child labour: Child labour refers to work done by a child younger than 15 years, unless local legislation has set a higher age.

    Code of practice/conduct: In the context of ethical trading, a code of practice (or code of conduct) is a set of standards concerning labour practices adopted by a company and meant to apply internationally, and in particular, to the labour practices of its suppliers and subcontractors.

    Collective bargaining: The right to collective bargaining refers to the right that workers organisations have to negotiate with employers or their organisations on behalf of their members to determine working conditions and terms of employment.

    CTC: Cut, Tear and Curl, a machine process which cuts the withered leaves into uniform particles to facilitate complete oxidation. Typical of most black tea grown in India and other lowland producing countries, and used in teabags to create a stronger tea of deeper colour.

    Dark: A dark or dull colour which usually indicates poorer leaf.

    Dust: The smallest broken leaves left over after all manufacturing processes are finished.

    ETI Base Code: The code of labour practice based on key


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