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1 Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26 th 2006 Chair of Energy and Environment Orphaned and Abandoned Mines: in pursuit of best practice in pursuit of best practice Paul L Younger C.Geol. C.Eng. FIChemE FCIWEM FIMMM HSBC Professor of Energy & Environment Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research & Outreach (HERO) Institute for Research on Environment & Sustainability (IRES) Newcastle University, UK. ([email protected] ) Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26 th 2006 Chair of Energy and Environment Orphaned and Abandoned Mines = O&AM

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Page 1: II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned …...Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland … Dimensions

1

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Orphaned and Abandoned Mines:in pursuit of best practicein pursuit of best practice

Paul L YoungerC.Geol. C.Eng. FIChemE FCIWEM FIMMM

HSBC Professor of Energy & Environment

Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research & Outreach (HERO) Institute for Research on Environment & Sustainability (IRES)

Newcastle University, UK. ([email protected])

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Orphaned and Abandoned Mines

= O&AM

Page 2: II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned …...Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland … Dimensions

2

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Scope of talk …• Dimensions of the issue• Priority setting – policies, perspectives,

pragmatism• Community engagement – who, what and

why?• Partnership approaches – panacea or

pain-in-the-rear?• Towards best practices

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Dimensions of the issue• Orphaned / abandoned mines:

– A lethal legacy?: long-term environmental impacts

– A precious patrimony?: community memory and the heritage ‘industry’

– both of the above? (in Europe –often yes; elsewhere … ?)

Dimensions of the issue

Page 3: II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned …...Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland … Dimensions

3

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Environmental impacts of O&AM: pathways

• Air: dust-blown emissions: ingestion• Soil: direct ingestion / arable /

pastoral use; land stability• Water: rivers (dissolved phase and

sediments), aquifers, ecosystems, drinking water

Effects generally highly localised

Effects downstream: ≤ 100s of kmDimensions of

the issue

2

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Dust and Land Stability Issues

Miami, Oklahoma (Tar Creek Superfund Site) Miami, Oklahoma (Tar Creek Superfund Site) –– PbPb/Zn /Zn orefieldorefield

Dune Dune bedformsbedforms on windswept, on windswept, finefine--grained mine wastesgrained mine wastes

Crown hole over deep Crown hole over deep mine roof collapsemine roof collapse

Dimensions of the issue

Page 4: II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned …...Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland … Dimensions

4

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

O&AM land instability: Impacts on Essential Infrastructure

DolphingstoneDolphingstone, Edinburgh, East Coast Main Railway Line, Edinburgh, East Coast Main Railway Line

CrownCrown--hole above ancient mine hole above ancient mine voids subject to recent change in voids subject to recent change in

water table positionwater table position

Dimensions of the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

O&AM Stability Issues objectively dangerous

AberfanAberfan, , South South Wales, Wales,

2121--1010--1966, 1966, 144 people 144 people killed (116 killed (116 of them of them school school

children)children)

Dimensions of the issue

Page 5: II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned …...Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland … Dimensions

5

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Environmental impacts of O&AM: frequency

• Air: an issue only with Pb, As, Hg, Cd etc• Soil: areal impact of pollution dependent

on markets (e.g. dairy herds etc)• Water: BY FAR THE MOST COMMON RECEPTOR AND VECTOR OF O&AM POLLUTION

Dimensions of the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Impacts of O&AM on water environment: surface waters

• Iron: most common pollutant (Mn, Zn, As often also mobile at pH ≈ 7)

• Acidity, low pH: an issue where weathering is near-surface:- spoil heaps, old tailings, shallow workings

• Other pollutants: e.g. SO4 – an issue where drinking water is abstracted downstream

Dimensions of the issue

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6

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Typical iron-rich (‘ferruginous’) mine water discharges

Ynysarwed, South Wales, UK - marginally acidic deep coal mine discharge, 250 mg/l Fe

Skinningrove, Cleveland, UK -two strongly alkaline ironstone mine discharges, both with 17 mg/l Fe

Dimensions of the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Major acidic discharge:Wheal Jane, Cornwall (UK), Jan 1992 (et seq.)

Dimensions of the issue

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7

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Acidic mine waters in a dry environment:Brugspruit, Witbank Coalfield, S Africa

Dimensions of the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Impacts of O&AM on water environment: ground waters

• Remarkably few recorded cases of pollution of major (i.e. potable supply) aquifers:– Major early example: Sth. Durham UK– Several other cases now pending in

Europe– Under-reporting to date: does it reflect

slow onset of obvious aquifer pollution after mine abandonment (decades)?

Dimensions of the issue

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8

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Water abstraction boreholes

Discharge into the sea

Evapo-transpirationInfiltrating

rainwater

Major recharge area

Mine water upflow

Runoff

Diminished recharge over glacial drift

Infiltrating rainwater

Piezometricsurface

(confined)

Permian: Magnesian Limestone Aquifer and minor basal units

Glacial drift (Quaternary)

Coal Measures (Upper Carboniferous)

Sea or river

General groundwater flow direction

Water table / piezometric surface

KEY

Water table (unconfined)

Level of shallowest mine

workings

Water abstraction boreholes

Discharge into the sea

Evapo-transpirationInfiltrating

rainwater

Major recharge area

Mine water upflow

Runoff

Diminished recharge over glacial drift

Infiltrating rainwater

Piezometricsurface

(confined)

Permian: Magnesian Limestone Aquifer and minor basal units

Glacial drift (Quaternary)

Coal Measures (Upper Carboniferous)

Sea or river

General groundwater flow direction

Water table / piezometric surface

KEY

Water table (unconfined)

Level of shallowest mine

workings

South Durham (UK): Aquifer Pollution From Underlying

Abandoned MinesDimensions of

the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Spennymoor

Bishop Auckland

Shildon

Darlington

Stockton-on-Tees

¤ ¤

¤ ¤

¤¤¤

¤¤

¤¤

¤¤ ¤

¤ ¤ ¤

¤¤

¤

¤ ¤

Middlesbrough

Billingham

Hartlepool

Sedgefield

Ferryhill

¤ ¤ ¤Newton Aycliffe

30.0010.00

100.00

100.00

300.00

¤

SO42- concentration contour (mg/L)

Water supply boreholes

Observation boreholes

Extent of the study area

Extent of the mine workings

Major settlements

100.00

Spennymoor

Bishop Auckland

Shildon

Darlington

Stockton-on-Tees

¤ ¤

¤ ¤

¤¤¤

¤¤

¤¤

¤¤ ¤

¤ ¤ ¤

¤¤

¤

¤ ¤

Middlesbrough

Billingham

Hartlepool

Sedgefield

Ferryhill

¤ ¤ ¤Newton Aycliffe

30.0010.00

100.00

100.00

300.00

¤

SO42- concentration contour (mg/L)

Water supply boreholes

Observation boreholes

Extent of the study area

Extent of the mine workings

Major settlements

100.00

Predicted plume migration to 2010

Dimensions of the issue

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9

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Predictions of the calendar years in which specific public supply wells will exceed drinking

water limit (250 mg/l SO4) for first time

2019Hope House

2057Waterloo Plantation

2038Great Stainton

2029Stillington

2024Hopper House

Year in which SO4 concentration predicted to first exceed 250 mg/l

Public Supply Well

Dimensions of the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Heritage issues and O&AM

• Mining is probably the second (certainly the third!) oldest profession

• The earliest reliably-dated archaeological remains of mining keep getting ever more ancient (e.g. Bronze Age now widely-attested in NW Europe)

• Conservation of such sites already an issue in Europe; may become so in Middle East / Indian sub-continent

• Probably an under-appreciated phenomenon in the Americas (e.g. Andes?)

Dimensions of the issue

Page 10: II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned …...Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland … Dimensions

10

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

• Neolithic: Grimes Graves Flint mines, Norfolk (UK)• Bronze Age:

– Great Orme Mine (carbonate-hosted Cu orebody), North Wales (UK)

– Mynydd Parys (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Orebody), North Wales (UK)

– Surface workings in Ireland (Cork)– Mining Settlements (Faja Pirítica, Spain)

• Dawn of the Industrial Age:– Germany– UK: coal mines, copper mines, etc

Dimensions of the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Bronze Age Cu Mine Voids

Great Great OrmeOrme, North Wales, North Wales

Dimensions of the issue

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11

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

In the Bronze Age Voids

Great Great OrmeOrme, North Wales, North Wales

Dimensions of the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

Bronze Age VMS copper workings, Mynydd Parys, North Wales: still a source of acidic drainage after 3500 years!

Dimensions of the issue

Page 12: II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned …...Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland … Dimensions

12

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

16th Century ‘Coffin Level’, copper mine, Caldbeck,

N.W. England

Coal Mine Drainage Aditcommenced 1617 AD,

Gateshead, N.E. EnglandDimensions of

the issue

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

Cornish Mining District: the newest UNESCO World Heritage Site

Romantic mine remains … …… prosaic prosaic pollutionpollution

Dimensions of the issue

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13

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, IrelandTourism based on TV location and one of very few mine heritage sites in Ireland …

Dimensions of the issue

… welcome to ‘BallykissAMD’

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

Killhope Lead Mining Museum, Co Durham (UK)

Dimensions of the issue

Park Level Mine:-Worked for lead: 1853 – 1916- Worked for education and recreation: 1996 –- Point source of dissolved Zn pollution 1853 -

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14

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Heritage issues and O&AM - examples

Killhope Lead Mining Museum, Co Durham (UK)

Dimensions of the issue

The fun way to learn about physics and mineralogy –and how to release Pb / Zn-rich suspended sediment

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Priority setting• Why prioritize?

– Spreading the costs over the years– Availability of specialist contractors– Developing know-how through

sequential experiences• How: Hierarchical approach -

impacts → ‘do-ability’

Priority setting

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15

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Impact assessment• Source → Pathway → Receptor• Multi-Attribute Technique:

– S→P→A + Social considerations• ‘Do-ability’: identification of

situations where a convergence of interests exists

Priority setting

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Impact assessment: examples• Source → Pathway → Receptor

Scottish Environment Protection Agency Opencast Mining GuidelineScottish Environment Protection Agency Opencast Mining Guidelines s to Achieve Compliance with the Groundwater Regulations 1998to Achieve Compliance with the Groundwater Regulations 1998

Priority setting

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16

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

• Multi-Attribute TechniqueImpact assessment: examples

Environment Agency / Environment Agency / Coal Authority Coal Authority

Priority ListPriority List

Priority setting

Mine Name (Ranked) Score Rank Mine Name (Ranked) Score RankBridgewater Canal 416 1 Goytre 51.2 46Harecastle Canal 300 2 Sheephouse Wood 50 47Taff Merthyr 186 3 Summerley no. 1 44 48Pontlottyn 185.2 4 Corrwg 40.8 49Old Meadows 180 5 Allerdeanmill 38.4 50Six Bells 170.4 6 Nantffyllon 37.6 51Blaenavon/Llwyd 170 7 Chell Heath Road 34.4 52Ynysarwed 163.2 8 Unstone 1 33.6 53Craig y Aber 144 9 Ash Bank 33.2 54Down Brook 139.2 10 A Morlais 32.4 55Blackwood/Sunningdale 133.2 11 Chirm 32.4 56Great Clifton 128.8 12 Hagwood 32.4 57Craggs Moor 127.6 13 Fender 30 58Summersales 127.6 14 Shepley Dyke 30 59Rhymney Hengoed/Tir y Berth 123.2 15 Heage 28 60Deerplay 119.2 16 Cwmgors 26.4 61Park Pit/Garswood 110 17 Loxley Bottom 25.2 62North Celynen 109.2 18 Maerdy H/L&LL Res 23.6 63Fennyfield 108.8 19 Abersychan/Cwm Sychan 23.2 64Jowkin Wood 108.8 20 Garwed Brook 23.2 65Clough Foot 108 21 Nant Ffrwd-oer SE 22.8 66Lindsay 105.6 22 Aspden Valley 22 67Bullhouse 103.6 23 Claywheels Lane 20.8 68Silkstone 96.8 24 Corrwg Fechan 19.2 69Glyn Castle 96 25 Stony Heap 18.8 70Jackson Bridge 93.6 26 Hill Top Farm 18.4 71Carr wood 93.6 27 Penrhiwfer 17.6 72Pemberton 82.8 28 Hapton Valley 17 73Dukes Level Burbage 81.6 29 Ynysybwl/Y FFrwd 16.8 74Pontllanfraith/Tram Road 78.4 30 Tunstall Park 61.2 75Hockery Brook 74.4 31 Tanygarn 15.2 76Dunvant 72.8 32 Ewanrigg 14.4 77Towneley Park 72.8 33 Lambley 12 78Acomb 72 34 Ynyswen/Nant Orky 11.6 79Bradley Brook 71.2 35 Trosnant Brook 10 80Valley Brook 68 36 Broughton Brook/Hawarden 9.6 81Aspull Sough 65.6 37 Mountain Gate 9.2 82Edmondsley 62.4 38 Tawe trib Llechart 7.2 83Alexandradrift 60 39 N Gwynfi 6 84Llynfi 60 40 Welch Whittle 5.2 85Margam Park 58.4 41 Cranberry Holes Dyke 4.8 86Sandhole Colliery 56.8 42 Lowlands 4 87Lightowlers Colliery 54.4 43 Haydock Sough 3.2 88Limb Brook 53.6 44 Byrons Drift 2.4 89Machen 53.6 45 Nant y Fedw 1.6 90

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment Priority setting

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17

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

• ‘Do-ability’Impact assessment: examples

Environment Environment Agency Agency

Metal Mine Metal Mine Strategy for Strategy for

WalesWales

Priority setting

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Community engagement

ArtesanalArtesanal gold miners, gold miners, Cordillera Real, Bolivia, 1999Cordillera Real, Bolivia, 1999

Volunteers constructing pilot Volunteers constructing pilot treatment wetland for acidic treatment wetland for acidic drainage from abandoned coal drainage from abandoned coal

mine, Quaking Houses, Co mine, Quaking Houses, Co Durham (UK) 1994.Durham (UK) 1994.

Community engagement

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18

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Community engagementCommunity gathering: Durham Community gathering: Durham

MinerMiner’’s Gala, July 2004s Gala, July 2004

GrupoGrupo de de DiDiáálogologo MineroMinero, , PerPerúú, September 2006, September 2006

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Community: who?• Which people constitute ‘the

community’ in any given case?• Who decides who belongs to it, who

is excluded?• If anyone can ‘join’, do all have

equal say-so?• What about divided communities?

Community engagement

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19

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Examples• Quaking Houses (Co Durham, UK) –

small ex-mining community engagement in O&AM remediation

• Horden (Co Durham, UK) – from formalism to inclusive dialogue

• (Perú – Pasivos AmbientalesMineros / Pasivos Sociales?)

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

The Quaking Houses Community Mine Water Treatment Wetland,

County Durham, UK

Community engagement

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20

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Polluted discharge to Stanley Burn (before project began)

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

The Gavinswelly Wetland

Community engagement

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21

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Constructing the full-scale wetland

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Newly-commissioned full-scale wetland (Nov ‘97)

Community engagement

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22

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

The wetland growsEnd of first growing season

Middle of fourth growing season

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Horden, Co DurhamRegional

dewatering of abandoned

mines in the Wear

catchment is ongoing,

preventing rising mine

waters causing serious

pollution of the River Wear

around Durham city

Community engagement

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23

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Horden, Co DurhamHowever,

this regional dewatering

network could not

prevent rebound

occurring in the East of Wear area after the

last pumping in coastal collieries ceased in

March 1994

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mine water rebound in East Durham coastal collieries

-450

-400

-350

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

15/06/1994

28/10/1995

11/03/1997

24/07/1998

06/12/1999

19/04/2001

01/09/2002

14/01/2004

Wat

er L

evel

(mbO

D)

HawthornDawdonEasington

Community engagement

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Water drifts pollution pathway - I

Water well

Old colliery “water drift”

Old colliery sea drift

Capped colliery shaft

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Water drifts pollution pathway - II

Water well

Old colliery “water drift”

Old colliery sea drift

Capped colliery shaft

Community engagement

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25

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Water drifts pollution pathway - III

Water well

Old colliery “water drift”

Old colliery sea drift

Capped colliery shaft

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Water drifts pollution pathway - IV

Water well

Old colliery “water drift”

Old colliery sea drift

Capped colliery shaft

Community engagement

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26

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Additional pollution pathway:

leakage threat to

wells in Permian

(MagnesianLimestone)

aquifer

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Hawthorn

Dawdon

HordenThree open shafts with chance of sufficient connectivity to control water levels in wide

area if used for pumping

Community engagement

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27

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Horden: breakdown in communication

• The Coal Authority knew it had to act to prevent aquifer and sea pollution

• However, it developed its plans in private, and only presented them to local authorities at a late stage opting for Hawthorn

• It was only then (with 12 months to go before onset of pollution) that they discovered an array of wider community interests of which they were unaware …

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Groundwater supply wells:source protection zones

Hawthorn site would

require a 5km pipeline to

the sea –taking hyper-

saline water across

groundwater source

protection zones!

Community engagement

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Hawthorn: other drawbacks• Pipeline would require wayleaves from

numerous landowners in an area inhabited by unemployed miners who are hostile to the Coal Authority

• The Hawthorn site had already been cleaned-up and prepared for development as a flagship business park for the district

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

The outcome …• Rapid (6 months) design and build of high-

density sludge plant at Horden (coastal shaft) as an emergency measure in area where head difference between mine workings and aquifer was already becoming positive …

• Convening of a multi-stakeholder dialogue group to scope long-term solution (probably pumping at Horden and Dawdon) – towards a partnership approach

Community engagement

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29

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Horden HDS planta world record for rapid procurement?

Community engagement

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Partnership approaches• Creative approach to regulation:

– Relevant laws generally not written with peculiarities of O&AM in mind

– Avoid dis-incentivising voluntary actions• Learning to listen:

– Other people’s agendas are valid!• Confidence building:

– Trust is often the commodity in shortest supply; it cannot be re-gained overnight

Partnership approaches

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30

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Partnership approaches: examples

• Mynydd Parys, North Wales• Lamesley, Co Durham

Partnership approaches

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mynydd Parys• Abandoned workings with dam

impounding head > 50m of highly acidic waters, perched above town of Amlwch

• Predictive models suggested dam failure would exceed 100-year flood in town, with almost certain loss of life

• Procedure needed to mine-out dam and restore ‘natural’ drainage

Partnership approaches

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mynydd Parys

Partnership approaches

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mynydd Parys

Partnership approaches

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mynydd Parys• Engineering challenge relatively

straightforward, if unusual• Regulatory challenge – major!• Stakeholders:

– Local government– Landowners and local residents– National authorities: environmental

protection, heritage, nature conservation– New mining company nearby– Mine explorers

Partnership approaches

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mynydd Parys• Conundrum: permitting works to avoid one

risk while apparently contravening laws on increasing discharge of toxic substances to a watercourse …

• Solution: two-phase process design– Remove flood risk as Phase One– Plan and implement remediation as Phase Two

• Thorough risk assessment approach taken, bringing all stakeholders along in consensus-building process

• One absentee stakeholder attempted to disrupt process late on; given short shrift!

Partnership approaches

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33

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mynydd Parys:Phase I in progress

Partnership approaches

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mynydd Parys: Adit discharge before and after Phase I

Partnership approaches

AFTERAFTERBEFOREBEFORE

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Mynydd Parys:awaiting Phase II …

Partnership approaches

Afon Goch Amlwch

Copper: 5.4 kg/day

Zinc: 20.7 kg/day

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Lamesley, Co Durham• Kibblesworth: Coal Authority’s largest pumping

station on an abandoned mine - preventing flooding, pollution and hazardous gas emissions in a dense urban area– Deterioration in quality due to changes in pumping to the

east; new need for Fe removal• Birtley sewage works: typical wastewater plant

requiring upgrade to remove PO4• My question: Given Fe and PO4 are highly reactive

forming insoluble minerals, can we co-treat both waters to achieve best overall environmental result?

• Required partnership between a public body (Coal Authority) and private water company (Northumbrian Water Ltd)

Partnership approaches

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Wetland co-treatment of sewage and mine water

Lamesley (Gateshead): Birtley Sewage Works and Kibblesworth Mine Water Discharge

Our house!

Inflow cascade

Partnership approaches

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Lamesley: challenges overcome in partnership working

• Novelty of co-treatment process: Newcastle Univ pilot plant• Contrasting time-scale drivers for Coal Authority and

Northumbrian Water Ltd• Different investment approval processes (involving different

parts of government)• Both organisations had different pre-agreed preferred

contractors … some legal delicacies!• Novelty of proposed joint-ownership of discharge consent from

final treatment system: required creative thinking from Environment Agency– Despite all the above, great success was achieved: the

project was runner-up in the 2005 National Utility Awards (in ‘Environmental Excellence’ category)

Partnership approaches

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Towards best practices• Dependencies:

– Climate– Type of mining– Socio-economic setting– Legal framework

Towards best practices

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Towards best practices• Ideal attributes:

– Logical basis: never accept the over-ruling of scientific rigour

– Culturally appropriate– Ecologically integrated– Hydrologically integrated (catchment

perspective / supra-catchment aquifers)

– Cognisant of full life-cycle

Towards best practices

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Best practice guidance• PIRAMID• ERMITE• ERMISA, CAMINAR• ICMM Community Toolkit• etc•… but: MEND is the envy of the world, so don’t concern yourselves too much with what we’ve been up to!

Towards best practices

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

PIRAMID guidelines

Towards best practices

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

YOUNGER PL, WOLKERSDORFER CH:

Preface

ERMITE CONSORTIUM:

Mining impacts on the Fresh Water Environment: Technical and Managerial Guidelines for Catchment Scale Management

Supplement 1 to Volume 23 March 2004

YOUNGER PL, WOLKERSDORFER CH:

Preface

ERMITE CONSORTIUM:

Mining impacts on the Fresh Water Environment: Technical and Managerial Guidelines for Catchment Scale Management

ERMITE: Environmental Regulation of Mine Waters in the European Union

European Commision, 5th Framework Programme, contract EVK1-CT-2000-00078

ERMITE guidelines

Towards best practices

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

From ERMITE to ERMISA …

YOUNGER PL, WOLKERSDORFER CH:

Preface

ERMITE CONSORTIUM:

Mining impacts on the Fresh Water Environment: Technical and Managerial Guidelines for Catchment Scale Management

Supplement 1 to Volume 23 March 2004

Towards best practices

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

… and on to CAMINAR(2007 – 2010)

• Collaborative EU-funded multi-stakeholder research in Peru, Chile, Bolivia

• Producing guidelines for water management in arid and semi-arid zones with mining

– HERO, Newcastle University– Water Management

Consultants (Chile)– ETSIMO (Spain)– Labor, Peru: (Stakeholder

engagement) – CAZALAC, Chile: (UNESCO

Centre for Water Management in arid and semi-arid zones)

Towards best practices

Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Summary• Dimensions of the issue: dust, stability, WATER – and

‘heritage’• Priority setting – an integrated technical and social

evaluation is needed• Community engagement – needs to be pursued at all

scales, from a single village, through regions to countries and international arenas

• Partnership approaches – costly, but worth it!• Towards best practices – scientifically sound, culturally

appropriate, ecologically and hydrologically integrated, cognisant of full life-cycle

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Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

Chair of Energy and Environment

Thank you – Merci

Greetings from the next generation of Europeans Greetings from the next generation of Europeans inheriting orphaned and abandoned mine issuesinheriting orphaned and abandoned mine issues