ib chemistry on paper chromatography, thin layer and column chromatography

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IB Chemistry on Paper Chromatography, Thin Layer and Column Chromatography

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  • 1.Tutorial on Chromatographic Techniques,Paper Chromatography , Thin Layer and ColumnChromatography. Prepared by Lawrence Kok http://lawrencekok.blogspot.com

2. Chromatography Techniques Chromatography Techniques Separation technique of mixture into their pure components Identify if sample is mixture or pure both quantitatively and qualitatively Interaction of substances between 2 phases - Stationary phase and Mobile phase Separation is based on Partition or Adsorption Separation analysisChromatographyPartition Chromatography Adsorption Chromatography 3. Chromatography TechniquesChromatography Techniques Separation technique of mixture into their pure components Identify if sample is mixture or pure both quantitatively and qualitatively Interaction of substances between 2 phases - Stationary phase and Mobile phase Separation is based on Partition or AdsorptionSeparation analysis Chromatography Partition Chromatography Adsorption ChromatographyPartition Chromatography Adsorption Chromatography Components distribute bet TWO immisible liquid phase Component adsorb on solid stationary phase Depends on relative solubility bet TWO phase Depends on polarity of stationary phase, mobile phase and solutes Solutes bonds to stationary phase or mobile phase Stationary phase is polar polar solutes adsorb strongly Stationary phase is non polar non polar solutes adsorb strongly Mobile phase is polar solutes stay in mobile phase Mobile phase is non polar non polar solutes stay in mobile phase 4. Chromatography TechniquesChromatography Techniques Separation technique of mixture into their pure components Identify if sample is mixture or pure both quantitatively and qualitatively Interaction of substances between 2 phases - Stationary phase and Mobile phase Separation is based on Partition or AdsorptionSeparation analysis Chromatography Partition ChromatographyAdsorption ChromatographyPartition Chromatography Adsorption Chromatography Components distribute bet TWO immisible liquid phase Component adsorb on solid stationary phase Depends on relative solubility bet TWO phase Depends on polarity of stationary phase, mobile phase and solutes Solutes bonds to stationary phase or mobile phase Stationary phase is polar polar solutes adsorb strongly Stationary phase is non polar non polar solutes adsorb strongly Mobile phase is polar solutes stay in mobile phase Mobile phase is non polar non polar solutes stay in mobile phase Paper Chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography Column ChromatographyY adsorbstronglyX adsorbstronglyApplicationApplication Application Detection of amino acids in a mixture Detection of amino acids in a mixture Preparative/collection of sample Different dyes in food colouring Different dyes in food colouringof pigments Separation of plant pigments Separation of plant pigments 5. Chromatography Techniques ChromatographyPartition ChromatographyAdsorption Chromatography components distribute between 2 immisible liquid phase components adsorp on solid stationary phase relative solubility in 2 phase bonds strongly to mobile phase move fasterStationaryLiquid phase Stationary phaseO-Stationary phase has a layer of liquid O- solid AI2O3 O- SiO2 O- O- 6. Chromatography Techniques ChromatographyPartition ChromatographyAdsorption Chromatography components distribute between 2 immisible liquid phase components adsorp on solid stationary phase relative solubility in 2 phase bonds strongly to mobile phase move faster Stationary Liquid phase MobileYMobile Y YStationary phaseliquid phaseXO-Stationary phase liquid phaseXhas a layer of liquid Y solidcontaining containingYO- AI2O3 X and YXX and YXYO- SiO2 Y X X O- O- 7. Chromatography Techniques ChromatographyPartition ChromatographyAdsorption Chromatography components distribute between 2 immisible liquid phase components adsorp on solid stationary phase relative solubility in 2 phase bonds strongly to mobile phase move faster Stationary Liquid phase MobileYMobile Y YStationary phaseliquid phaseXO-Stationary phase liquid phaseXhas a layer of liquid Y solidcontaining containingYO- AI2O3 X and YXX and YXYO- SiO2 Y X X O- O-Mobile Mobile O- Y Y Y adsorb stronglyXX YStationary phase Iiquid phase XXYhas a layer of liquidliquid phase O- Y containing XYcontaining XXXYX X O- Y X X 8. Chromatography Techniques ChromatographyPartition Chromatography Adsorption Chromatography components distribute between 2 immisible liquid phase components adsorp on solid stationary phase relative solubility in 2 phase bonds strongly to mobile phase move faster Stationary Liquid phaseMobileYMobile Y YStationary phase liquid phaseXO-Stationary phase liquid phaseXhas a layer of liquidY solidcontainingcontaining YO- AI2O3X and YXX and YX YO- SiO2 YX XO-O-MobileMobileYYO-Y adsorb stronglyXX YStationary phase Iiquid phase XXYhas a layer of liquid liquid phase Y O- containing XY containing XXXY X X Y O-X X X X XXSeparation of X and Y XY Y YX XYYYY 9. Chromatography Techniques ChromatographyPartition Chromatography Adsorption Chromatography components distribute between 2 immisible liquid phase components adsorp on solid stationary phase relative solubility in 2 phase bonds strongly to mobile phase move faster Stationary Liquid phase MobileYMobile Y YStationary phaseliquid phaseXO-Stationary phase liquid phaseXhas a layer of liquid Y solidcontaining containingYO- AI2O3 X and YXX and YXYO- SiO2 Y X X O- O-Mobile Mobile Y Y O-Y adsorb stronglyXX YStationary phase Iiquid phase XXYhas a layer of liquidliquid phase Y O- containing XYcontaining XXXYX X Y O- X X X X XXSeparation of X and YXY Y Y X XYYYYPartition distribution of solute X and Y between 2 liquid phase Adsorption solute X and Y adsorb temporary on the solid X more soluble in mobile phase (move with mobile liquid phase) Y adsorb strongly on solid phase, eluted slower Y less soluble in mobile phase (stay on stationary liquid phase) X in liquid mobile phase, eluted faster 10. Chromatography Techniques Paper Chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography Partition chromatographyAdsorption chromatography Distribution solute bet both liquid phase Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Depends on relative solubilityO-Stationary phase solid Stationary phase - Cellulose paper X O- AI2O3 or SiO2 absorb water on its surface Y YYO-X Y O-Y Y X O- XMobile Liquid phase with solute X and YMobile Liquid phase with solute X and Y 11. Chromatography Techniques Paper ChromatographyThin Layer Chromatography Partition chromatographyAdsorption chromatography Distribution solute bet both liquid phase Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Depends on relative solubilityO-Stationary phase solid Stationary phase - Cellulose paper X O- AI2O3 or SiO2 absorb water on its surface Y YYO-X Y O-Y Y X O- XMobile Liquid phase with solute X and YMobile Liquid phase with solute X and Y Aqueous liquid phase on surface of stationary phase (paper) Stationary phase - solid silica SiO2 or alumina AI2O3Mobile phase liquid solvent move by capillary action Mobile liquid phase - solventSeparation depends on how strongly solute adsorb on solidSolvent move by capillary actionAdsorption of solute on stationary solid phase 12. Chromatography Techniques Paper ChromatographyThin Layer Chromatography Partition chromatographyAdsorption chromatography Distribution solute bet both liquid phase Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Depends on relative solubilityO-Stationary phase solid Stationary phase - Cellulose paper X O- AI2O3 or SiO2 absorb water on its surface Y YYO-X Y O-Y Y X O- XMobile Liquid phase with solute X and YMobile Liquid phase with solute X and Y Aqueous liquid phase on surface of stationary phase (paper) Stationary phase - solid silica SiO2 or alumina AI2O3Mobile phase liquid solvent move by capillary action Mobile liquid phase - solventSeparation depends on how strongly solute adsorb on solidSolvent move by capillary actionAdsorption of solute on stationary solid phase 13. Chromatography TechniquesColumn Chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography Adsorption chromatography Adsorption chromatography Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Mobile Liquid phase (solvent) with solute X and YXStationary phase solid O-Stationary phase solid X X AI2O3 or SiO2Y YO- AI2O3 or SiO2 X Y YXO-X O-X O-YYY YYMobile Liquid phase with solute X and Y YYY 14. Chromatography TechniquesColumn ChromatographyThin Layer Chromatography Adsorption chromatography Adsorption chromatography Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Mobile Liquid phase (solvent) with solute X and YXStationary phase solidO-Stationary phase solid X X AI2O3 or SiO2 Y Y O- AI2O3 or SiO2 XY Y X O- X O- X O-YYY YY Mobile Liquid phase with solute X and YStationary phase - solid silica SiO2 or alumina AI2O3 YYYMobile phase liquid solvent move by capillary action Mobile phase liquid solvent added from top (Eluant)Adsorption of solute on stationary solid phaseSolute in mobile phase adsorb on solidX - Adsorb strongly travel slowly X - Strongly adsorb travel slowly, eluted last Y Adsorb weakly travel fast with solvent Y - Weakly adsorb travel fast with solvent, eluted first 15. Chromatography TechniquesColumn ChromatographyThin Layer Chromatography Adsorption chromatography Adsorption chromatography Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Solute adsorb on stationary solid phase Mobile Liquid phase (solvent) with solute X and YXStationary phase solidO-Stationary phase solid X X AI2O3 or SiO2 Y Y O- AI2O3 or SiO2 XY Y X O- X O- X O-YYY YY Mobile Liquid phase with solute X and YStationary phase - solid silica SiO2 or alumina AI2O3 YYYMobile phase liquid solvent move by capillary action Mobile phase liquid solvent added from top (Eluant)Adsorption of solute on stationary solid phaseSolute in mobile phase adsorb on solidX - Adsorb strongly travel slowly X - Strongly adsorb travel slowly, eluted last

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