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What is a Heater?A heater is a heat transfer equipment where heat of combustion of fuel oil/fuel gas is used to increase the temperature of the desired fluid.

On the basis of Draft ( Natural, Forced, Induced and Balanced Draft)On the basis of Structural Configuration ( Cylindrical, Cabin, Multi cell)On the basis of Radiant Tube Configuration ( Vertical, Horizontal, Helical and Wicket Type)On the Basis of Burner position ( Up fired, Down fired and Wall fired)Classification of Heaters

CDU HEATER CONFIGURATIONAT BORLBalanced Draft, Twin Cell, Cabin Type, Horizontal Radiant Tubes and Up fired.API 560 : Fired Heater for RefineryAPI 530 : Heater Tube thickness in RefineryAPI RP 550 : Installation of Instruments and Control System for Fired heater and Steam GenerationEA 7301 : Guidelines for NoiseDesign of Heater Heat Distribution in Radiant SectionFlame Radiation 17%Hot Gas Radiation (Combustion Products) 32%Convection from Flue Gases 7%Refractory Reflection 14% Mirror Effects Total 70%Convection Section 15%Losses 15%

CDU Heater

Heat Duty : 43.84 MillionKcal/hr. Fluid Handled : Crude@18000MT/D.Inlet Crude Temp. : 310 COutlet Crude Temp. : 365 CFuel Used : Fuel Gas/Fuel Oil/ Hot well gases

Crude IN OUT Liquid (Kg/hr) 750000 420553 HC Vapour (Kg/hr) 329447 Operating pressure 19.73 3.73 (kg/cm2 g) Operating temperature 310 365 (Deg.C)

Fluid HandledMP Steam IN OUT Flow (kg/hr) 13150 13150 Pressure(Kg/cm2 g) 15.5 14.5 Temperature (Deg. C) 209 315 Topmost part of the Convective Section 100 mm thick Castable typeEntrance of the Convective Section 100 mm thick Castable type+50 mm thick C.Fibre board with 8mm dia SS316L lugs+0.1mm thick SS316 foil between Castable and board

INSULATION Arch Section 125 mm thick C.Fibre module+25mm C.Fibre blanket with SS 316L studs+0.1 mm SS316 foil between blanket and fibre module.Radiant Section 100 mm thick C.Fibre module +25mm C.Fibre blanket with SS316L studs+0.1 mm SS316 foil between blanket and C.Fibre module

Tube Configuration

No. of Passes : 8No. of Tubes in Convective Section : 96No. of tubes in radiant Section : 128MOC of Tubes : 5Cr,0.5MoO.D. of Tubes : 168.3 mmThickness of tubes : 7.11 mm I.D. of Tubes : 154.08 mm

It is the negative air pressure generated bythe buoyancy of hot gases generated insidethe furnace. Measured At : Firebox FloorBelow the Convective SectionAt the Duct Inlet DRAFT

Fuel Gas (mol %) Hydrogen 48.72 N Butane 2.33 H2S 0.015 C5+ 1.84 CO2 0.08 NH3 0.01 Water 0.55 CH4 27.10 C2H6 13.86 C2H4 1.03 C3H8 3.48 C3H6 0.29 i-Butane 0.68 Butenes 0.01Pressure at burner (Kg/cm2 g) 1.5 Temperature at burner (Deg.C) 40 Heating value (Kcal/kg) 11590

Ejector off gas from VDU Flow (kg/hr) 2590 Pressure(Kg/cm2 a) 1.1 Temperature (Deg.C) 45

Fuel Oil Sulphur Content 1%( wt.)Nitrogen 834 ( wt ppm)Ni