harsha vidya project
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- 1. INTRODUCTION: Herbal medicines are the synthesis of therapeutic experiences of generations of practicing physicians of indigenous systems of medicine for over hundreds of years while nutraceuticals are nutritionally or medicinally enhanced foods with health benefits of recent origin and marketed in developed countries. In 1991, WHO developed guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicine. The earliest recorded evidence of their use in Indian, Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Syrian texts dates back to about 5000 years. The classical Indian texts include Rigveda, Atherveda, Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. The herbal Medicines/traditional medicaments have, therefore, been derived from rich traditions of ancient civilizations and scientific heritage. WHY?? Herbal medicines are being used by about 80% of the world population primarily in the developing countries for primary health care. They have stood the test of time for their safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Ancient literature also mentions herbal medicines for age-related diseases namely memory loss, osteoporosis, diabetic wounds, immune and liver disorders, etc. for which no modern medicine or only palliative therapy is available. These drugs are made from renewable resources of raw materials by ecofriendly processes and will bring economic prosperity to the masses growing these raw materials.
2. WORLD MARKET As per available records, the herbal medicine market in 1991 in the countries of the European Union was about $ 6 billion (may be over $ 20 billion now), with Germany accounting for $ 3 billion, France $ 1.6 billion and Italy $ 0.6 billion. Incidentally in Germany and France, herbal extracts are sold as prescription drugs and are covered by national health insurance. In 1996, the US herbal medicine market was about $ 4 billion and with the current growth rate may be more than double by the turn of century. Thus a reasonable guesstimate for current herbal medicine market worldwide may be around $ 3060 billion. The Indian herbal drug market is about $ one billion and the export of herbal crude extracts is about $ 80 million. Germany holds the lead and has published individual monographs on therapeutic benefits of more than 300 herbs. In developing countries, China has compiled/generated data on over 800 medicinal plants and exports large amounts of herbal drugs. India has prepared only a few monographs and its exports are dismal. 3. Herbal medicine scenario in India The turnover of herbal medicines in India as over-the-counter products, ethical and classical formulations and home remedies of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha systems of medicine is about $ 1 billion with a meagre export of about $ 80 million. Psyllium seeds and husk, castor oil and opium extract alone account for 60% of the exports. 80% of the exports to developed countries are of crude drugs and not finished formulations leading to low revenue for the country. Thus the export of herbal medicines from India is negligible despite the fact that the country has a rich traditional knowledge and heritage of herbal medicine. India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity centres having over 45,000 plant species. Its diversity is unmatched due to the presence of 16 different agro climatic zones, 10 vegetative zones and 15 biotic provinces. The country has 15,00018,000 flowering plants, 23,000 fungi, 2500 algae, 1600 lichens, 1800 bryophytes and 30 million micro-organisms. India also has equivalent to 3/4 of its land exclusive economic zone in the ocean harbouring a large variety of flora and fauna, many of them with therapeutic properties. About 1500 plants with medicinal uses are mentioned in ancient texts and around 800 plants have been used in traditional medicine. The major traditional sector pharmas, namely Himalaya, Zandu, Dabur, Hamdard, Maharishi, etc. and modern sector pharmas, namely Ranbaxy, Lupin, Allembic, etc. are standardizing their herbal formulations by chromatography techniques like TLC/HPLC finger printing, etc. There are about 7000 firms in the small-scale sector manufacturing traditional medicines with or without standardization. 4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE:Macrothelypteris torresiana Conservation statusApparently Secure (NatureServe) Scientific classification Kingdom:PlantaeDivision:PolypodiophytaClass:PolypodiopsidaOrder:BlechnalesFamily:ThelypteridaceaeGenus:MacrothelypterisSpecies:M. torresianaBinomial name Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.)Synonyms Thelypteris torresiana 5. Macrothelypteris torresiana is a species of fern which is native to tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. It has been introduced into other areas, including large parts of North and South America. The species is assigned to different genera depending on how the family Thelypteridaceae is classified. If the entire family is classified in Thelypteris, it is Thelypteris torresiana. However, molecular data shows an affinity between a group of species which are sometimes classified in Macrothelypteris,Phegopteris, and allied genera, so it is common to remove this species from Thelypteris and classify it as Macrothelypteris torresiana. M. torresiana contains flavanoids which have been investigated for possible medicinal valueDescription Macrothelypteris torresiana is a robust fern with a short creeping rhizome. Fronds are three-pinnate, deeply divided, to 1.2 m long, with a stalk 0.5 m. Sori are circular but not terminal on the veins. Fertile: September. AFRICA Southern Africa: South Africa - KwaZulu-Natal Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar ASIA-TEMPERATE Eastern Asia: Japan - Honshu, Kyushu [s. & w.], Ryukyu Islands, Shikoku [s.]; Taiwan ASIA-TROPICAL Indo-China: Indochina; Thailand Malesia: Indonesia; Malaysia 6. AUSTRALASIA Australia: Australia - Queensland [e.] New Zealand: New Zealand PACIFIC North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii South-Central Pacific: French Polynesia Southwestern Pacific: Samoait grows in open places usually near waterFINDINGS TILL NOW: Two new flavone derivatives (1 and 2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Macrothelypteris torresiana, along with four known flavonoids: protoapigenin, apigenin, kaempferol and quercetin. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed weak cytotoxic activity against human tumour cell lines HepG2, MCF7 and K562. 7. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of Plant Materials Aerial parts of Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching was obtained from a domestic stand in Kadiri, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh State, India. The plant materials were transported in polythene bags to the Research Laboratory of Pharmacy, GITAM UNIVERSITY, VSKP, AP, INDIA. where the study was carried out. Processing of Plant Materials The aerial parts were washed in running water and cut into small bits to facilitate drying. The pieces of plant material were dried in room temperature for 48 hours.The dried plant materials (aerial parts) was taken separately and ground using an electric blender to obtain a fine powder. The powder was further passed through a 2mm sieve to obtain finer particles. The powdered samples were stored in a clean glassware container until needed for analysis. 8. Solvent Extraction Procedures 5g portions of powdered plant materials were each separately dispersed in 50ml of each water, 70% ethanol, acetone, methanol and hexane. The solution was left to stand at room temperature for 24hrs and was filtered with Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The filtrate was used for the phytochemical screening using the following tests. Methods of Extraction of Medicinal Plants Maceration In this process, the whole or coarsely powdered crude drug is placed in a stoppered container with the solvent and allowed to stand at room temperature for a period of at least 3 days with frequent agitation until the soluble matter has dissolved. The mixture then is strained, the marc (the damp solid material) is pressed, and the combined liquids are clarified by filtration or decantation after standing.circulatory extraction. 9. Infusion Fresh infusions are prepared by macerating the crude drug for a short period of time with cold or boiling water. These are dilute solutions of the readily soluble constituents of crude drugs.Digestion This is a form of maceration in which gentle heat is used during the process of extraction. It is used when moderately elevated temperature is not objectionable. The solvent efficiency of the menstrum is thereby increased.Decoction In this process, the crude drug is boiled in a specified volume of water for a defined time; it is then cooled and strained or filtered. This procedure is suitable for extracting water-soluble, heatstable constituents. This process is typically used in preparation of Ayurvedic extracts called quath or kawath. The starting ratio of crude drug to water is fixed, e.g. 1:4 or 1:16; the volume is then brought down to one-fourth its original volume by boiling during the extraction procedure. Then, the concentrated extract is filtered and used as such or processed further. 10. Percolation This is the procedure used most frequently to extract active ingredients in the preparation of tinctures and fluid extracts. A percolator (a narrow, cone-shaped vessel open at both ends) is generally used. The solid ingredients are moistened with an appropriate amount of the specified menstruum and allowed to stand for approximately 4 h in a well closed container, after which the mass is packed and the top of the percolator is closed. Additional menstruum is added to form a shallow layer above the mass, and the mixture is allowed to macerate in the closed percolator for 24 h. The outlet of the percolator then is opened and the liquid contained therein is allowed to drip slowly. Additional menstruum is added as required, until the percolate measures about three-quarters of the required