hamilton, ontario: documenting summer heat stress in multi-unit residential buildings

Download Hamilton, Ontario: Documenting Summer Heat Stress In Multi-Unit Residential Buildings

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  • Documenting summer heat stress in multi-unit residential

    buildings in Hamilton

    Dan Thompson, Ph.D. Matt Thompson

  • Tools USB temperature/humidity dataloggers

    1) south face of concrete apartment building 2) attic of older brick multi-unit detached house Two other replicates of attic apartments

    Hourly measurements of air temperature and humidity

    June 1st to Sept 17th, 2013

  • Rationale Hamilton's unique geography, built

    environment Mountain, harbour Low to medium-income

    population living in large tower blocks but also in older detached homes in the lower city

    74,000 in Hamilton live in apartments 5 stories

    37,000 in < 5 story buildings, including multi-unit detached houses

    Beasley: 46% ( 5); 16% (

  • Background2003 European heatwave (Fouillet et al., 2007): 50-80% increase in mortality for those >75 years

    during heat wave; no change for those

  • Background cont'd

    The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 55-2010: "Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy" recommends 20C to 26C at 50% relative humidity as comfortable for sedentary work An air temperature of 26C at 50% relative humidity

    corresponds to a humidex of 29. Humidex > 30 used here as threshold for heat stress.

  • Hourly observations of indoor temperature and humidex

    Jun 01 Jun 16 Jul 01 Jul 16 Jul 31 Aug 15 Aug 30 Sep 14

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45Tower BlockAtticYHM

    Air t

    empe

    ratu

    re (C

    )

    Jun 01 Jun 16 Jul 01 Jul 16 Jul 31 Aug 15 Aug 30 Sep 145

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    Hum

    idex

  • Cumulative Heating Event

    Attic

  • 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 400%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    YHM

    Tower block

    Attic

    Humidex

    % o

    f tim

    e ex

    ceed

    ing

    hum

    idex

    val

    ueCumulative heat exposure in residences

    Need to know the nature of heat stress: Is 6 hours at 36 twice as bad as 30?

    1150 hours of apartment heat stress

    975 hours

  • 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 400%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    YHM

    Tower block

    Attic

    Humidex

    % o

    f nig

    ht-ti

    me

    hour

    s ab

    ove

    thre

    shol

    dNight time heat exposure

    Apartment units experience 4-5x more frequent night heat stress hours (>30) compared to the airport.

    ~50% of heat stress hours occur 7pm-6am

    550-600 hours > 30

  • Hot Nights

    Airport cools off quickly: likely a poor indicator of night-time heat stress. At night, humidity reaches maximum; fans alone less effective. In attic, peak occurs at 7-8pm

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70YHM

    Tower Block

    Attic

    Hour of the day

    Num

    ber o

    f day

    s w

    ith H

    umid

    ex >

    30

    in h

    our g

    roup

    5-6 hour lag

  • Air quality interactions with heat stress

    2013

  • 2014 Activities Expand observations to six locations Better understanding of how residents are

    currently cooling off Publicly-accessible spaces (community centres,

    Jackson Square) Cooling in place Beasley will conduct a cooling survey, key informant

    interviews and focus group Reach out to City Housing Hamilton

  • Questions

    Can we build a data-driven heat emergency policy: Excess mortality study for Hamilton

    Age Building type Air quality Night-time cooling

    Can we extend of hours of services to consider heat lag of buildings In-house cooling strategies for large apartment blocks?

    Chicago common rooms a potential model Explore cool room program with Horizon (one A/C room available 24/7 per

    building) Summer angels? Social health accountability program

  • Hamilton's Urban Heat Island

    Source: NASA MODIS satellite surface temperaturehttp://daac.ornl.gov/MODIS/

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