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<ul><li> 1. Clark, D. B., Nelson, B., Slack, K., Martinez-Garza, M., &amp; DAngelo, C. M. (2011). Games and sims bridging intuitive and formal understandings of physics. Talk commissioned by the Gordon Research Conference on Visualization, Smithfield, Rhode Island.<br /></li></ul> <p> 2. SURGE<br />games and simsbridging intuitive and formal understandings of physics<br />Douglas Clark, Brian Nelson, Kent Slack, Mario Martinez-Garza, &amp; Cynthia DAngelo<br /> 3. digital simulations?<br />computational models of real or hypothesized situations or phenomena that allow users to explore the implications of manipulating or modifying parameters within the models<br /> 4. digital games?<br />definitions of games focus on rules, choices, play, and systems for tracking progress or success<br />digital games involve:<br />digital models that allow users to make interesting choices with meaningful implications<br />an overarching set of explicit goals with accompanying systems for measuring progress<br />subjective opportunities for play and engagement <br /> 5. 6. digital simulations<br />digital games<br />virtual worlds<br /> 7. Games GoodGames Bad<br />Ga<br />are games good = bad question<br /> 8. just like Labs GoodLabs Bad<br />Ga<br />just like<br /> are labs good = bad question<br /> (or lectures, novels, movies, etc.)<br />(NRC, 2005)<br /> 9. Games GoodGames Bad<br />Ga<br />games = medium with specific affordances and constraints (just like books, simulations, labs, movies, and lectures)<br /> 10. Games GoodGames Bad<br />Ga<br />better question: <br />which designs and structures optimize which outcomes for whom and how?<br /> 11. digital games are to simulations as feature films are to animations<br /> 12. good digital games help people construct productive mental models for operating on the underlying simulations<br /> 13. affordances<br />good digital games can provide:<br />engagement / approachable entry <br />context / identification<br />point of view / pathway<br />stakes / investment<br />monitoring / feedback / pacing / gatekeeping<br /> 14. 15. competition between learning goals and game design goals (e.g., visual complexity, competing mechanics, surface vs. core features)<br />Learning Goals<br />Tech<br />Game Design<br /> 16. game = the software<br />Game = community, practices, artifacts, andinteractions around the game<br />(Gee, 2007)<br /> 17. "conceptually-embedded" games = science processes embedded within the game world<br />"conceptually-integrated" games = science concepts integrated directly into core mechanics of game environment <br />(Clark &amp; Martinez-Garza, in press)<br /> 18. Vygotskys spontaneous and scientific concepts<br />different ways of knowing physics<br />can be used to bootstrap one another<br /> 19. What design principles for digital gameswill support the development of intuitive understanding (spontaneous concepts) and help bridge these concepts with instructed scientific concepts?<br /> 20. do students learn?is learning skewed by prior experience or gender?<br /> 21. students made progress on challenging items based on the FCI(but effect sizes and power modest)<br />(Learning and Affective Outcomes discussed in Clark, Nelson, Chang, Martinez-Garza, Slack, &amp; DAngelo, in press)<br /> 22. similarities across countries and genders in terms of gaming habits and attitudes about SURGE<br /> 23. equitable outcomes<br />boys replay levels somewhat more frequently.<br />no significant gender differences in learning outcomes<br />learning outcomes not correlated with reported gaming habits. <br />similarities between countries in affective and learning outcomes.<br /> 24. visualizing gameplay data<br />commercial game design knows the value of gameplay data<br />frequency of death by location in cp_dustbowl(Team Fortress 2)<br /> 25. Heat map of player locations every 5 seconds(Halo 3)<br /> 26. our initial efforts<br />100,710,attemptcommand<br />100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,1.00<br />100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,2.00<br />100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,3.00<br />100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,4.00<br />100,710,tick,-46.61,24.40,.00,.00,5.00<br />100,710,impulse,-46.61,24.40,0,3,5.08<br />100,710,tick,-43.82,24.40,3.00,.00,6.00<br />100,710,tick,-40.82,24.40,3.00,.00,7.00<br />100,710,tick,-37.82,24.40,3.00,.00,8.00<br />100,710,tick,-34.82,24.40,3.00,.00,9.00<br />100,710,impulse,-32.90,24.40,270,3,9.65<br />100,710,tick,-31.82,23.32,3.00,-3.00,10.00<br />100,710,tick,-28.82,20.32,3.00,-3.00,11.00<br />100,710,impulse,-26.09,17.59,180,3,11.92<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,17.32,.00,-3.00,12.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,14.32,.00,-3.00,13.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,11.32,.00,-3.00,14.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,8.32,.00,-3.00,15.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,5.32,.00,-3.00,16.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,2.32,.00,-3.00,17.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,-.68,.00,-3.00,18.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,-3.68,.00,-3.00,19.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,-6.68,.00,-3.00,20.00<br />100,710,tick,-26.09,-9.68,.00,-3.00,21.00<br />100,710,impulse,-26.09,-11.93,0,3,21.76<br />100,710,tick,-25.34,-12.68,3.00,-3.00,22.00<br />100,710,impulse,-23.60,-14.42,0,3,22.59<br />100,710,tick,-21.08,-15.68,6.00,-3.00,23.00<br />100,710,impulse,-20.60,-15.92,0,3,23.09<br />100,710,collision,-15.74,-17.48,0,0,23.62<br />100,710,impulse,-15.38,-17.36,90,3,23.67<br />100,710,tick,-12.32,-15.32,9.00,6.00,24.00<br />100,710,impulse,-9.17,-13.22,0,3,24.36<br />100,710,collision,-5.57,-11.54,0,0,24.65<br />100,710,tick,-1.37,-13.64,12.00,-6.00,25.00<br />100,710,collision,6.55,-17.48,0,0,25.66<br />100,710,tick,10.63,-15.44,12.00,6.00,26.00<br />100,710,collision,18.67,-11.54,0,0,26.67<br />100,710,tick,22.63,-13.52,12.00,-6.00,27.00<br />100,710,impulse,23.59,-14.00,90,3,27.09<br />100,710,collision,28.99,-15.41,0,0,27.55<br />100,710,tick,23.59,-16.76,-12.00,-3.00,28.00<br />100,710,impulse,22.15,-17.12,90,3,28.13<br />100,710,impulse,16.87,-17.12,0,3,28.57<br />100,710,tick,12.91,-17.12,-9.00,.00,29.00<br />100,710,impulse,11.38,-17.12,0,3,29.17<br />100,710,impulse,9.46,-17.12,0,3,29.50<br />100,710,impulse,8.74,-17.12,0,3,29.74<br />100,710,tick,8.74,-17.12,.00,.00,30.00<br />100,710,impulse,8.74,-17.12,0,3,30.19<br />(etc)<br />Ploticusgraphing package<br />(game play data analysis discussed in Martinez-Garza, Clark, Nelson, Slack, &amp; DAngelo, submitted)<br /> 27. visualization of one students path through m1-1<br /> 28. 29. UULU<br />UUU<br />UULU<br />UULU<br />LLU<br />LUU<br /><br />augmented screenshot of SURGE gameplay<br /> 30. sequential pattern analysis<br />UULU<br />UULU<br />UUU<br />UUU<br />UULU<br />UULU<br />UULU<br />UULU<br />LLU<br />LLU<br />LUU<br />LUU<br /> 31. hidden markov modeling<br />Z3 + Z1 Z2 = learning<br /> 32. what next?<br />how can we provide players with access to these visualizations of their gameplay data to scaffold learning?<br />what types of visualizations would be diagnostically useful for teachers?<br /> 33. SURGE design<br />Learning Goals<br />engagement / approachable entry <br />context / identification<br />point of view / pathway<br />stakes / investment<br />monitoring / feedback / pacing / gatekeeping<br />Tech<br />Game Design<br /> 34. flexibly explore designs to integrate game, learning, and architecture goals<br /> 35. players need to learn and use physics principles and representations to succeed in the game<br />subsequent levels aggregate concepts and representations<br /> 36. embed game in a storyline with broad appeal<br /> 37. support articulation of intuitive and formal ideas<br />prediction through navigation interface<br />planned<br />real-time<br />explanation through dialog<br />standard game dialog text selection<br />iconic of sentence fragment construction<br /> 38. integrate popular gameplay mechanics with formal physics representations and concepts <br /> 39. protecting novice players from frustration cannot allow progress without mastery<br /> 40. protecting novice players from frustration cannot allow progress without mastery<br /> 41. focus on just-in-time feedback and signaling <br />(Cuing and VisualSignaling work discussed in Slack, Nelson, Clark, Martinez-Garza, &amp; DAngelo, in preparation)<br /> 42. support broad challenge curve<br />Engaged<br />Dejected<br />Bored<br />keep people from falling off with just in time support<br />minimize costs of failureand experimentation<br />encourage improved performance through non-game mechanic influencing incentives<br />game increases difficulty correlated to performance<br />multiple paths or solutions of varying difficulty and reward<br /> 43. 44. 45. Part III:our next tech plan could be yours, too<br /> 46. pragmatic tech constraints<br />schools<br />bandwidth <br />processing power <br />administrative privileges for installation <br />firewalls<br />development bottlenecks<br />multiple programmers simultaneously<br />non-programmers design and revise <br /> 47. editor for level set-up strings<br /> 48. WISE 4 = hub<br /> 49. easy to add tools and activities<br /> 50. no programming required<br /> 51. lots of step types already<br /> 52. teacher management tools including grading<br /> 53. teachers can pause the class computers<br /> 54. status updates and alerts for teachers<br /> 55. plan<br />STUDENT PORTAL<br />TEACHER / <br />RESEARCHER PORTAL<br />XML<br />CATALOG FILE<br />SURGE FLASH PLAYER<br />WISE<br />ENVIRONMENT<br />XML<br />DATA FILE<br />XML<br />DATA FILE<br />XML<br />DATA FILE<br />XML<br />DATA FILE<br />XML<br />DATA FILE<br />XML<br />DATA FILE<br />schools<br />bandwidth&lt; 200 kb player &amp; small xml files<br />processing power simple flash<br />administrative privileges for installation none<br />Firewalls port 80<br />development bottlenecks<br />multiple programmers simultaneouslyyes<br />non-programmers design and reviseyes<br />WISE DATABASE<br /> 56. thank you!doug.clark@vanderbilt.eduwise4.berkeley.edu<br /></p>