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  • GAMIFYING OUTDOOR SOCIAL INQUIRY LEARNING

    WITH CONTEXT-AWARE TECHNOLOGY

    Morris Siu-Yung Jong 1 , Tom Chan

    1 , Vincent Tam

    2 and Ming-Tak Hue

    3

    1The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong 2The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong

    3The Education University of Hong Kong, Tai Po, Hong Kong

    ABSTRACT

    Gamification is a strategy of using game mechanics and experience design to digitally engage people to achieve intended

    goals in non-game contexts. There has been increasing discussion among educators and researchers about harnessing the

    idea of gamification to enhance current learning and teaching practices in school education. This paper presents our

    initiative to gamify outdoor social inquiry learning with context-aware technology, as well as briefly reporting its

    pedagogic effectiveness measured in a quasi-experimental study.

    KEYWORDS

    Gamification, Social Inquiry Learning, Outdoor Learning, Context-aware Technology

    1. BACKGROUND

    Social inquiry learning (SIL), which has been considerably adopted in social humanities education,

    emphasises on students’ inquiry into humans and their relationships with the “societal globe” from multiple

    perspectives, values and interests (Chadwick, 2008; Hill, 1994; Jansen, 2011). Thus, in the course of SIL,

    situating and engaging students to interact with real-life, real-world contexts is important (Stripling, 2003,

    2008). Curiosity is the best driving force for learning; keeping learners curious via engaging them in

    game-based activities is a desirable approach to education (Papert, 1993; Piaget, 1970). Gamification refers

    to the use of game elements in non-gaming contexts (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled & Nacke, 2011). Lee and

    Hammer (2013) have further defined gamification as the incorporation of game mechanics into non-gaming

    software applications to promote user experience and engagement.

    2. OUR INITIATIVE

    Guided by Stripling’s (2003, 2008) social inquiry model and Lee et al.’s (2013) gamification model, we have developed a GPS-supported gamified learning mobile application (App) (see Figure 1) for engaging and supporting students to pursue context-aware SIL in outdoor environments. Based the received GPS signals, gamified context-aware scaffolds of the App will pop up in accordance with students’ physical positions in the real world. The scaffolds will engage and support students in accomplishing the outdoor inquiry tasks at the fieldtrip site. At each inquiry spot, the Connection scaffold (see Figure 2), which is in the form of voice navigation, will provide students with background information about the societal issue to be inquired. The Investigation scaffold, which is in the form of data-collection exercise, will guide students to gather new information to answer the questions related to the issue. The Construction scaffold will assist students in generalising the information on hand via mind-mapping and making an interim conclusion about the issue via audio-recording. The Reflection scaffold will support students, via video-blogging, in reflecting on their weaknesses and setting new goals for inquiring the next spot. After completing the tasks at a spot, students will be awarded a “star.” The leader board (see Figure 3) in the App will dynamically indicate how many stars each student has obtained and how much time he/ she has spent on obtaining the stars in a real-time manner.

    International Conference Educational Technologies 2017

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  • Figure 1. Interface of the App

    Figure 2. Connection Scaffold

    Figure 3. Leader Board

    3. RESEARCH FINDINGS

    A quasi-experimental study was carried out to investigate the pedagogic effectiveness of the proposed “gamified” SIL (viz. GSIL) approach in comparison with conventional SIL approach, in terms of students’ knowledge acquisition. It involved a total of 373 Grade-10 students from top, middle, and bottom academic-banding schools; 128 were high-achieving students, 127 were moderate-achieving students, and 118 were low-achieving students. Results indicated that, compared to the conventional approach, GSIL had different degrees of significant positive effects on the high, moderate, and low academic-achieving students (Cohen’s d effect sizes: 0.30, 0.62, and 1.04).

    ISBN: 978-989-8533-71-5 © 2017

    194

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The work described in this paper was substantially supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of

    Hong Kong Special Administration Region, China (Project No.: 14616815).

    REFERENCES

    Chadwick, D. (Ed.) (2008). Approaches to social inquiry. New Zealand: The Ministry of Education.

    Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining

    gamification. Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference (pp. 9–15). Tampere, Finland.

    Hill, B. (1994). Teaching social studies in a multicultural society. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.

    Jansen, B. A. (2011). Inquiry unpacked: An introduction to inquiry-based learning. Library Media Connection, 29(5),

    10–12.

    Lee, J. J. & Hammer, J. (2011). Gamification in education: What, how, why bother? Definitions and uses. Exchange Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal, 15(2), 1–5.

    Papert, S. (1993). The children’s machine: Rethinking school in the age of the computers. New York: Basic Books.

    Piaget, J. (1970). Science of education and psychology of the child. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Stripling, B. K. (2003). Inquiry-based learning. In B. K. Stripling & S. Hughes-Hassell (Eds), Curriculum connections

    through the library (pp. 3–39). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.

    Stripling, B. K. (2008). Inquiry: Inquiring minds want to know. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 25(1), 50–52.

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    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES 2017 COPYRIGHT TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD PROGRAM COMMITTEE KEYNOTE LECTURES WORKSHOP FULL PAPERS BIBLIOMETRIC SCIENCE MAPPING AS A POPULAR TREND: CHOSEN EXAMPLES OF VISUALISATION OF INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH NETWORK RESULTS OPTIMIZE KNOWLEDGE SHARING, TEAM EFFECTIVENESS, AND INDIVIDUAL LEARNING WITHIN THE FLIPPED TEAM-BASED CLASSROOM DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA SIMULATION FOR AUGMENTING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS INTRODUCING TABLETS IN A PORTUGESE SCHOOL:A MICOOL PROJECT CASE STUDY ANALYSIS COLLEGE COMMUNICATIVE TEACHING AND E-LEARNING: A TRAINING SCHEME TESTED STRATEGIES FOR RECRUITING AND RETENTION OF STEM MAJORS REDESIGNING LEARNING SPACES: WHAT DO TEACHERS WANT FOR FUTURE CLASSROOMS? PEER INSTRUCTIONS AND USE OF TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS. AN INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEANINGFUL LEARNING IT DOESN’T MATTER WHAT IS IN THEIR HANDS: UNDERSTANDING HOW STUDENTS USE TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT, ENHANCE AND EXPAND THEIR LEARNING IN A COMPLEX WORLD A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SOCIAL MEDIA ADDICTION OF HIGH SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS COMPUTER LITERACY TEACHING USING PEER LEARNING AND UNDER THE CONFUCIAN HERITAGE CULTURAL SETTINGS OF MACAO, CHINA APPLYING SENSORS TO INVESTIGATE GENDER DIFFERENCES IN BEGINNING TENNIS PLAYERS USING ARDUINO TO TEACH PROGRAMMING TO FIRST-YEAR COMPUTER SCIENCE STUDENTS DIMENSIONS OF SELF-PERCEIVED EMPLOYABILITY IN FIRST YEAR IT STUDENTS CHALLENGES FOR A NEW GENERATION OF STEM STUDENTS DEVELOPING A GESTURE-BASED GAME FOR MENTALLY DISABLED PEOPLE TO TEACH BASIC LIFE SKILLS LEARNING GROUP FORMATION FOR MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES (MOOCs) ICE: AN AUTOMATED TOOL FOR TEACHING ADVANCED C PROGRAMMING

    SHORT PAPERS MOOC AS A LABORATORY OF CULTURE SHOCK: HELPING NON-U.S. STUDENTS INTEGRATE INTO ALL-AMERICAN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT THE USE OF MOBILE DEVICES OUTSIDE OF THE CLASSROOM FOR SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING AMONG FEMALE EFL STUDENTS IN SAUDI ARABIA COMMUNICATION SCAFFOLDS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN PBL DIGITAL PEDAGOGIES FOR TEACHERS’ CPD SENSING LOCALLY IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT: USING SENSORS IN TEACHERS’ EDUCATION THE USE OF A DIGITAL BADGE AS AN INDICATOR AND A MOTIVATOR EXPLORING THE EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF MINECRAFT: THE CASE OF 118 ELEMENTARY-SCHOOL STUDENTS DIGITAL STORY CREATION: ITS IMPACT TOWARDS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE COLLABORATIVE PEER FEEDBACK

    POSTERS A SYSTEM FOR CLASS REFLECTION USING IPADS FOR REAL-TIME BOOKMARKING OF FEEDBACKS INTO SIMULTANEOUSLY RECORDED VIDEOS ROLES, STRATEGIES AND IMPACT OF MOOCS ON FLIPPING BUSINESS EDUCATION GAMIFYING OUTDOOR SOCIAL INQUIRY LEARNING WITH CONTEXT-AWARE TECHNOLOGY

    AUTHOR INDEX